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1. |||....... 25%  Boonen A, van der Heijde D, Landewé R, Guillemin F, Rutten-van Mölken M, Dougados M, Mielants H, de Vlam K, van der Tempel H, Boesen S, Spoorenberg A, Schouten H, van der Linden S: Direct costs of ankylosing spondylitis and its determinants: an analysis among three European countries. Ann Rheum Dis; 2003 Aug;62(8):732-40
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  • [Title] Direct costs of ankylosing spondylitis and its determinants: an analysis among three European countries.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess direct costs associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
  • To determine which variables, including country, predict costs.
  • Disease related healthcare resource use was measured and direct costs were calculated from a societal perspective (true cost estimates) and from a financial perspective (country-specific tariffs).
  • Mean annual societal direct costs for each patient were euro;2640, of which 82% were direct healthcare costs.
  • In univariate analysis costs were higher in the Netherlands than in Belgium, but this difference disappeared after adjusting for baseline differences in patients' characteristics among countries.
  • Mean annual direct costs from a financial perspective were euro;2122, euro;1402, and euro;941 per patient in the Netherlands, France, and Belgium, respectively.
  • For each country, costs from a financial perspective were significantly lower than costs from a societal perspective.
  • CONCLUSION: Direct costs for AS are substantial in three European countries but not significantly different after adjusting for baseline characteristics among countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Direct Service Costs / statistics & numerical data. Spondylitis, Ankylosing / economics

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  • (PMID = 12860728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4967
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the rheumatic diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Rheum. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antirheumatic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1754632
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2. |......... 14%  Jha P: Reliable direct measurement of causes of death in low- and middle-income countries. BMC Med; 2014;12:19
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  • [Title] Reliable direct measurement of causes of death in low- and middle-income countries.
  • BACKGROUND: Most of the 48 million annual deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) occur without medical attention at the time of death so that the causes of death (COD) are largely unknown.
  • Indirect methods to estimate COD for most countries are inadequate, mainly because they currently rely on an average ratio of 1 nationally representative COD to every 850 estimated deaths in order to measure the cause of 25 million deaths across 110 LMICs.
  • Direct measurement of COD is far more reliable and relevant for country priorities.
  • Five feasible methods to expand COD data are: sample registration systems (which form the basis for the ongoing Million Death Study in India; MDS); strengthening the INDEPTH network of 42 demographic surveillance sites; adding retrospective COD surveys to the demographic household and health surveys in 90 countries; post-census retrospective mortality surveys; and for smaller countries, systematic assembly of health records.

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  • (PMID = 24495839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-7015
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3912491
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3. |......... 14%  Daniele D, Daniela M: Impending flop for brand antiretrovirals in the emerging markets? Open AIDS J; 2008;2:68-71
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  • Forecasts from Country choices, South-South partnerships and Clinton Foundation-UNITAID coalition show that present policies for brand ARVs are at the risk of flop in emerging South markets such as India, China, Thailand and Brazil.The dynamics explored in this article highlight the risks the originator companies are running in the emerging markets, along with their interest in direct agreements with the generic industry for the manufacturing and marketing of ARVs.Resulting information here would suggest the brand enterprises:To look for fast registration of their ARVs by regulatory authorities in all countries enlisted for differential pricing.To secure all formulations differentiated prices.To align with the Clinton-UNITAID prices for the corresponding generics.To pursue flexible negotiations with the generic companies to secure both counterparts long-term advantages.

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  • [Cites] PLoS Med. 2007 Nov 13;4(11):e305 [18001145.001]
  • (PMID = 18923694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1874-6136
  • [Journal-full-title] The open AIDS journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Open AIDS J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2556197
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View summary of articles of this page
1. Disease related healthcare resource use was measured and direct costs were calculated from a societal perspective (true cost estimates) and from a financial perspective (country-specific tariffs).

2. Reliable direct measurement of causes of death in low- and middle-income countries.

3. Forecasts from Country choices, South-South partnerships and Clinton Foundation-UNITAID coalition show that present policies for brand ARVs are at the risk of flop in emerging South markets such as India, China, Thailand and Brazil.The dynamics explored in this article highlight the risks the originator companies are running in the emerging markets, along with their interest in direct agreements with the generic industry for the manufacturing and marketing of ARVs.Resulting information here would suggest the brand enterprises:To look for fast registration of their ARVs by regulatory authorities in all countries enlisted for differential pricing.To secure all formulations differentiated prices.To align with the Clinton-UNITAID prices for the corresponding generics.To pursue flexible negotiations with the generic companies to secure both counterparts long-term advantages.

4. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. ...     Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief.

5. The estimated total direct cost burden for OAB per country ranges between 333 million in Sweden and 1.2 billion in Germany and the total annual direct cost burden of OAB in these six countries is estimated at 3.9 billion.

6. Increase in direct diabetes-related costs and resource use in the 6 months following initiation of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes in five European countries: data from the INSTIGATE study. ...     In all countries in our study, mean total direct costs per patient increased in the 6-month follow-up period, compared with the 6-month period prior to insulin initiation, and ranged from €577 in Greece to €1402 in France. ...     CONCLUSION: In all countries, the mean total direct cost of care for diabetes increased after starting insulin. ...     The breakdown of total direct costs by expenditure category varied considerably across countries, reflecting differences in resource use patterns, prices of medical resources, and different health care systems.

7. METHODS: Four decades of male mortality rates of cardiovascular and chronic noncommunicable diseases were regressed on changes in and levels of country income per capita, market integration, foreign direct investment, urbanization rates, and population aging in fifty-six countries for which comparative data were available. ...     In low-income countries, higher levels of country income per capita, population urbanization, foreign direct investment, and market integration were associated with greater mortality rates of heart disease and chronic noncommunicable disease, less increased or sometimes reduced rates in middle-income countries, and decreased rates in high-income countries.

8. OBJECTIVES:. (1) To compare the prevalence of bullying and victimization among boys and girls and by age in 40 countries. (2) In 6 countries, to compare rates of direct physical, direct verbal, and indirect bullying by gender, age, and country. ...     Six countries (N = 29,127 students) included questions about specific types of bullying (e. g., direct physical, direct verbal, indirect).

9. In March 1993, Global 2000, Inc., and the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Research, Training, and Eradication of Dracunculiasis at CDC began providing direct assistance for the eradication of dracunculiasis in both countries by assigning a resident public health advisor to each country.

10. OBJECTIVES: To describe the changes in resource utilization in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Spain, and Turkey) and direct costs in four European countries (Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Greece) over the first 12 months of insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ...     Contributors to total direct costs differed between countries. ...     In each country, mean direct total costs of T2DM care increased during the first 6 months after insulin initiation and decreased thereafter.

11. International breeding values for direct longevity were calculated using a multi-trait across-country evaluation model. ...     Three out of 15 countries published international EBV of direct longevity only and 12 out of 15 countries combined direct longevity with predictors (combined longevity).

12. Moreover, if they were not born in an English or French speaking country, indirect immigrants are more likely to speak English and/or French capably than direct migrants born in such countries.

13. The global Argentinean scientific research output is far below that of developed countries and has been affected in direct manner by economic, political and social disturbances in the country.

14. The country comparisons show that the direct cost of administrating the up-dosing and maintenance differs considerably between countries, and that the cost of medical staff is substantial, constituting in most cases more than half of the direct costs of the immunization therapy.

15. MACE methods developed to combine separate within-country genomic evaluations were compared to direct, multi-country analysis of combined genotypes using simulated genomic and phenotypic data for 8,193 bulls in nine countries.

16. Ten samples were obtained from each country by eliminating data from small herds with fewer than 500 records, selecting herds at random from the entire data set after removing the small herds, and then retaining the direct-sire-connected contemporary groups within each sample. ...     Covariance between direct and maternal was negative in all countries, accounting for 6, 8, and 10% of the total phenotypic variation, and the total dam effect was 32.5, 37.0, and 34.0% in USA, Canada, and Uruguay, respectively.

17. The comparisons between these countries illustrate how the differences in healthcare systems influence the contribution of direct and indirect costs to the total.

18. Immigrants were grouped into those from high-income countries (IHIC) and those from low-income countries (ILIC) and the average direct cost was compared by country of origin. ...     A multivariate linear mixed model of direct costs was adjusted by country of origin (classified in five groups) and by the individual variables of age, gender, hospital admission, and death as a cause of discharge.

19. Although all samples were obtained from individuals residing in Uzbekistan, individuals with direct ancestry from neighboring Central Asian countries are included. ...     Individuals with direct ancestry in nearby countries originate from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan.

20. This study identified and evaluated specific direct patient interventions made in developing countries that could result in a decrease of the maternal mortality rate.

21. The differences observed among countries on absolute and relative (compared with direct costs) amounts of indirect costs can be explained with the capability of a country of actually measure productivity losses and indirect costs.

22. The costs per fatality, usually defined as direct and indirect costs plus a value of safety per se, are compared both between countries and over time, 1990 and 1999, for each country.

23. When no direct comparisons between originator products in different countries are available, registration authorities are sometimes only prepared to grant registration for a generic product on the basis of a comparison with the originator product in the respective country.

24. The worldwide costs of dementia were estimated from prevalence figures for different regions, and cost-of-illness studies from key countries using a model based on the relationship between direct costs of care per demented and the gross domestic product per capita in each country.

25. Our analysis uncovers a strong non-linear interaction between the diversification of a country and the ubiquity of its products, thus suggesting the possible need of moving towards more efficient and direct non-linear fixpoint algorithms to rank countries and products in the global market.

26. Organization of nursing care in three Nordic countries: relationships between nurses' workload, level of involvement in direct patient care, job satisfaction, and intention to leave. ...     The aim of this study was to analyze associations between RNs' patient workload and level of involvement in direct patient care, their job satisfaction and intention to leave in these countries.

27. The objective was to determine whether there was any time effect (trend to increase or decrease), country effect (significant difference between the countries included in the analysis) or product type effect (direct or oxidation), as well as to identify risk factors.

28. RESULTS: The analysis revealed that: fifteen countries spent less than 4.5% of their GDP on health; forty four countries spent less than 15% of their national annual budget on health; sixty three percent of the governments in the Region spent less than US$10 per person per year; fifty per cent of the total expenditure on health in 24 countries came from government sources; prepaid health financing mechanisms cover only a small proportion of populations in the Region; private spending constituted over 40% of the total expenditure on health in 31; direct out-of-pocket expenditures constituted over 50% of the private health expenditure in 38 countries. ...     CONCLUSION: Every country needs to develop clear pro-poor health financing policy and a comprehensive health financing strategic plan with a clear roadmap of how it plans to transit from the current health financing state dominated by inequitable, catastrophic and impoverishing direct out-of-pocket payments to a visionary scenario of universal coverage. ...     The strategic plan should strengthening of health sector advocacy and health financing capacities, health economics evidence generation and utilisation in decision-making, making better use of available and expected resources, monitoring of equity in financing, strengthening of the exemption mechanisms, managed removal of direct out-of-pocket payments (for countries that choose to), and improving country-led sectoral coordination mechanisms (e.g.

29. RESULTS: Workers from 6 of 98 countries responded to direct e-mail inquiries, and an additional five responses came from individuals who were working or had worked in-country at the time of the survey.

30. Aspects considered include changes in foreign direct investments, changes in the size of the European labor market, and the potential emigration of the labor force in underdeveloped countries.

31. OBJECTIVE: To describe the medical resource use and direct costs of treatment for women with urinary incontinence (UI) in European countries. ...     The direct medical costs were calculated by attaching the unit costs from the perspective of the relevant health insurance in each country to the country-specific resource use.

32. Recently, national surveys of prevalence of obesity in the United States and some European countries have been reported in terms of criteria that permit direct comparison of the findings.

33. This literature has direct methodological relevance to developing countries interested in assessing the magnitude of their current cost-of-smoking burden and their future burdens, with differences in tobacco use histories and the availability of chronic disease treatment affecting country-specific estimates.

34. Country income had an inverse linear association with the presence of randomization (chi2 for trend = 5.6, p = 0.02) and a direct association with the use of blinding (chi2 for trend = 6.9, p = 0.008); although in low income countries the probability of blinding was increased from 36% in 1993 to 46% in 2003.

35. While our analyses are not without their limitations, and the lack of comparability across instruments precludes a direct comparison across countries, there is no doubt that health expenditure contributes substantially to the impoverishment of households-increasing the incidence of poverty and pushing poor households into deeper poverty-in each country.

36. In this survey of recent ecological research on the main vectors of trypanosomiasis in those countries of East, Central and West Africa that are not predominantly French-speaking, the authors, after outlining the distribution of tsetse flies and the type of country in which they occur, discuss the direct and indirect effects of climate on these insects-particularly on their physiological water balance and on pupal fat reserves-and their recent advances into new areas.

37. The methods used by economists to estimate the direct and indirect costs of epilepsy are reviewed and results from studies in different countries are discussed.

38. The authors further posit that countries that have enacted stronger intellectual property rights and research incentives have seen tremendous increases in foreign direct investment.

39. Folklore and "uses and customs" in countries such as Mexico, under certain circumstances, have direct influences on risks for traumatic injuries.

40. These strategies include attracting more people with legal permanent residency status into the health workforce, reimbursing home countries for the cost of educating health workers who subsequently migrate to the United States, improving policies to facilitate the entry of direct care workers into the country, advancing efforts to promote and monitor ethical migration and recruitment practices, and encouraging the implementation of programs by US employers to improve the experience of immigrating health workers.

41. Mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age, and gender on the cognitive and social determinants of adolescent smoking in Spain and the UK: a cross-sectional study. ...     Participants' age, gender, smoking intentions and ASE determinant scores were identified and linear regression analysis was used to examine the mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age and gender on participants' smoking intentions.

42. "The purpose of this article is to show the relationship among Japanese direct investment...,domestic labor markets, and international labor migration in ASEAN-4 countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand).

43. General morbidity surveys of the population in western countries are based on interviews, while in socialist countries general morbidity surveys are usually done by direct medical examination or by assessment of the attended morbidity, most frequently, however, a combination of both approaches is used. ...     Neither in interviews nor in the method based on direct or indirect medical examination so far sufficient unification of methodological approaches has been achieved to compare, based on these results, the health status of the population in different countries.

44. The subjects presented are under active discussion in many countries, with the goal of direct applications in daily clinical practice.

45. However, some lower-level evidence suggesting that direct transfer of the curriculum model from one country to another is not appropriate without first assessing the cultural context of both countries.

46. All 17 countries offer direct incentives, such as paid maternity leave. ...     In 9 countries, pregnant women receive direct financial incentives.

47. Horvat and coauthors report on trends in living kidney transplantation in 69 countries, having assembled the data from registries, national societies, the medical literature, and direct contact with transplant centers.

48. Life-time prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent direct self-injurious behavior: a comparative study of findings in 11 European countries. ...     OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and associated psychosocial factors of occasional and repetitive direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB), such as self-cutting, -burning, -biting, -hitting, and skin damage by other methods, in representative adolescent samples from 11 European countries.

49. This article compares issues surrounding long-term care provisions in the two countries and introduces Japan's unique licensure and certificate system for direct care workers.

50. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems.The country case studies--conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). ...     The proportions of the different cost components (vector control; surveillance; information, education and communication; direct medical and indirect costs), as percentage of total costs, differed across the respective countries.

51. INTRODUCTION: The direct transfer of the results of pharmaco-economic studies between countries may not be suitable if the proper adaptations are not made to take into account differences in treatment patterns, resource use and costs from country to country.

52. Recommendations across multiple countries and organizations are synthesized as guidelines to direct future action.

53. It has been suggested that the annual direct costs for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are now around $US41 billion in the 8 most industrialised countries.

54. Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries, where I is proportional to GCI(α).

55. Taking into account the changes implemented in the three countries, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each country in financing and decentralization, a rule for decision-making is proposed that attempts to identify the main financial changes implemented in each country and the basic indicators that can be used in future years to direct the planning, assessment, adjustment and correction of health financing and decentralization.

56. This review discusses the direct and indirect costs of hand injury, the ability of countries to pay these costs and suggests some ways of minimising these costs.

57. The paper goes on to briefly review some of the circumstances in certain Latin American and Caribbean countries that could pose practical limitations for direct application of the ethical principles described.

58. Today we are paying the price: Across the country, our industry is experiencing the highest rates of direct-care vacancies and turnover in its history.

59. Moreover, governments clearly must direct attention to childhood mental disorders to guarantee a healthy future for their countries.

60. Of the several direct interventions against malnutrition, supplementary feeding is the most frequently employed in poor countries.

61. Both of these diseases affect the poorest of the poor in endemic countries, cause considerable direct and indirect costs (even though the national control programmes tend to provide free care) and push affected households deeper into poverty.

62. Estimates of the same genetic correlation differed noticeably depending on estimation strategy (up to 1.03 units) for country-pairs with no or few direct genetic links.

63. However, influenza control programs in developed countries focused on direct vaccination of the elderly.

64. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in low-income countries is hindered by the low sensitivity of direct sputum smear microscopy.

65. Given the prevalence of direct management of public hospitals in developing countries, the São Paulo experience has implications for policymakers seeking to improve hospital performance.

66. Health financing reforms in most low-income countries promote social and micro health insurance, in order to reduce direct spending by patients.

67. CONCLUSIONS: We found large variations in estimated GDM prevalence, but direct comparison between countries is difficult due to different diagnostic strategies and subpopulations.

68. By comparing the census information on survival of parents and the corresponding direct measures of mortality, we have an opportunity to assess the validity of techniques which are commonly used in countries with defective vital registration.

69. Short-range strategies in countries such as the United States involve more direct ways in which patients and doctors can alter their communication.

70. The direct exposure of workers in industrialized countries to asbestos fibers and nonoccupational household contact elevate the risk of malignant mesothelioma.

71. Such measures would have facilitated direct comparison of data between countries and improved timely understanding of the characteristics and impact of the pandemic.

72. The ELISA was more sensitive and specific, but proved no more efficient than the traditional CF test in the direct typing of samples of poorer quality from many countries overseas where communications are often difficult.

73. For the influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, countries responded to the direct threat of influenza but may have missed opportunities and strategies to limit secondary pneumococcal infections.

75. The health systems of the affected countries need not only to be directly involved in control activities but also to direct operations and have adequate resources to run them successfully.

76. In this paper, I provide an insight into the contribution of Nordic nurses to family centred care (family system nursing), present findings from an integrative review on family nursing in the Nordic countries, share with you examples of family level interventions, and offer some ideas regarding where we might want to direct our focus in family system nursing in the future.

77. Twelve automobile air conditioner systems from six manufacturers and three countries, selected mostly because of complaints of unpleasant odors in the passenger compartment, were examined for microbial growth by direct microscopy and enrichment culture.

78. Between 1998 and 2002, successive epidemic waves of bluetongue (BT) virus infection were recorded in the Balkans giving rise to clinical outbreaks of BT that caused severe direct losses of livestock in several countries, namely: Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Kosovo, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Albania and probably Turkey and Croatia.

79. As the global culture moves forward into the 21st century with increasing interaction of populations through direct contact and electronic interchange, those citizens of our planet who have not benefited from the material gains that have been realized in the "mature economy" countries will increasingly seek equity on all levels, beginning with the most fundamental aspect of health care.

80. The direct impact on nurse emigration emphasizes the ethical, economic, and social inequalities between source and destination countries.

81. The role foreign direct investment might play in bringing advanced technologies to developing countries is highlighted.

82. It is concluded that a direct proportional relationship does exist for the countries investigated in this study.

83. Changes in mortality by eight major causes are analyzed over time using direct standardization methods for each sex from 1950 to 1984 in both countries.

84. Many countries are incorporating direct measures of non-market outputs in the national accounts.

85. In low-income and middle-income countries, direct (unconcentrated) sputum smear microscopy is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis.

86. The burden of osteoporosis in developing countries is increasing dramatically with the aging of the population and demographic trends; however, there is a lack of direct epidemiologic data.

87. These findings may help direct further research on cross-cultural investigations and health promotion interventions in both countries.

88. In developed countries, salt added during food processing is the dominant source of salt and largely outside of the direct control of individuals.

89. After our country enters WTO, confronted with the direct influence in big international market opening, editorial department will face fierce competition.

90. Using data from 30 countries for the years 1995-2007, this paper suggests that organ supply today is more dependent on direct donations than on the collective organ pool.

91. We examined hand hygiene practices in surgical wards in 9 countries in Europe and Israel through direct practice observation.

92. Via case studies based on clinical consultation and direct testimony, this paper examines the effects on Chilean therapists living and working in that country.

93. Whilst direct comparisons between countries are not made, the themes that are evident within and between accounts are instructive.

94. BACKGROUND: Just two decades ago, 30 of today's countries in Europe and Asia had socialist governments under Soviet dominance or direct administration.

95. Eleven focus groups were conducted with physicians from six culturally distinct countries to explore their perception of formalized, written ethical guidelines (i.e., codes of ethics, credos, value and mission statements) that attempt to direct their ethical practice.

96. NPAH seem to effectively contribute to both the direct and indirect mutagenicity of air soot (in European countries more than in the U.S.A.).

97. This approach reflects decreases in malaria's direct and indirect mortality burden and can be examined in nearly all countries.

98. Nurses have been volunteering to provide direct patient care in developing countries for several decades.

99. FINDINGS: Overall health-care financing was progressive in all three countries, as were direct taxes.

100. However, the sending countries received US direct foreign investment (DFI) in the 1970s, particularly labor intensive investment in export manufacturing.


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4. |......... 12%  Wirtz VJ, Forsythe S, Valencia-Mendoza A, Bautista-Arredondo S: Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices. BMC Public Health; 2009;9 Suppl 1:S6
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  • Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS.
  • Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries.
  • Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs.
  • RESULTS: Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not;.
  • (b) the socioeconomic status of the country;.
  • (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative.
  • Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief.

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  • [Cites] AIDS. 2006 Aug 22;20(13):1745-52 [16931939.001]
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  • (PMID = 19922690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2458
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2779508
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5. |......... 13%  Irwin DE, Mungapen L, Milsom I, Kopp Z, Reeves P, Kelleher C: The economic impact of overactive bladder syndrome in six Western countries. BJU Int; 2009 Jan;103(2):202-9
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  • [Title] The economic impact of overactive bladder syndrome in six Western countries.
  • OBJECTIVE: To calculate up-to-date estimates of the economic impact of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) with and without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) on the health sector of six countries (Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK), as OAB is a significant health concern for adults aged >18 years living in Western countries.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence data derived from the EPIC study were combined with healthcare resource-use data to derive current direct and indirect 1-year or annual cost of illness estimates for OAB including UUI in Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK.
  • This model estimates the direct healthcare costs attributed to OAB, as well as the impact of work absenteeism.
  • RESULTS: The estimated average annual direct cost of OAB per patient ranged between 262 in Spain and 619 in Sweden.
  • The estimated total direct cost burden for OAB per country ranges between 333 million in Sweden and 1.2 billion in Germany and the total annual direct cost burden of OAB in these six countries is estimated at 3.9 billion.


6. |......... 13%  Jones S, Castell C, Goday A, Smith HT, Nicolay C, Simpson A, Salaun-Martin C: Increase in direct diabetes-related costs and resource use in the 6 months following initiation of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes in five European countries: data from the INSTIGATE study. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res; 2012;4:383-93
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  • [Title] Increase in direct diabetes-related costs and resource use in the 6 months following initiation of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes in five European countries: data from the INSTIGATE study.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the resource use and associated direct costs of diabetes care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the 6 months before and after initiation of insulin therapy.
  • Direct medical costs were evaluated from the national health care system (third-party payer) perspective at 2006 prices.
  • In all countries in our study, mean total direct costs per patient increased in the 6-month follow-up period, compared with the 6-month period prior to insulin initiation, and ranged from €577 in Greece to €1402 in France.
  • CONCLUSION: In all countries, the mean total direct cost of care for diabetes increased after starting insulin.
  • The breakdown of total direct costs by expenditure category varied considerably across countries, reflecting differences in resource use patterns, prices of medical resources, and different health care systems.

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  • [Cites] Diabetologia. 2002 Jul;45(7):S5-12 [12136405.001]
  • [Cites] J Manag Care Pharm. 2003 Jul-Aug;9(4):309-16 [14613449.001]
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  • [Cites] Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Aug;24(8):2349-58 [18606055.001]
  • (PMID = 23277741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-6981
  • [Journal-full-title] ClinicoEconomics and outcomes research : CEOR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinicoecon Outcomes Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3531987
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; costs / insulin / resource use / type 2 diabetes mellitus
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7. |......... 14%  Stuckler D: Population causes and consequences of leading chronic diseases: a comparative analysis of prevailing explanations. Milbank Q; 2008 Jun;86(2):273-326
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  • CONTEXT: The mortality numbers and rates of chronic disease are rising faster in developing than in developed countries.
  • This article compares prevailing explanations of population chronic disease trends with theoretical and empirical models of population chronic disease epidemiology and assesses some economic consequences of the growth of chronic diseases in developing countries based on the experiences of developed countries.
  • METHODS: Four decades of male mortality rates of cardiovascular and chronic noncommunicable diseases were regressed on changes in and levels of country income per capita, market integration, foreign direct investment, urbanization rates, and population aging in fifty-six countries for which comparative data were available.
  • Neoclassical economic growth models were used to estimate the effect of the mortality rates of chronic noncommunicable diseases on economic growth in high-income OECD countries.
  • FINDINGS: Processes of economic growth, market integration, foreign direct investment, and urbanization were significant determinants of long-term changes in mortality rates of heart disease and chronic noncommunicable disease, and the observed relationships with these social and economic factors were roughly three times stronger than the relationships with the population's aging.
  • In low-income countries, higher levels of country income per capita, population urbanization, foreign direct investment, and market integration were associated with greater mortality rates of heart disease and chronic noncommunicable disease, less increased or sometimes reduced rates in middle-income countries, and decreased rates in high-income countries.
  • Rising chronic disease mortality rates will significantly reduce economic growth in developing countries and further widen the health and economic gap between the developed and developing world.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology. Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality. Chronic Disease / epidemiology. Chronic Disease / mortality. Communicable Diseases / epidemiology. Developed Countries / statistics & numerical data. Economics / trends. Neoplasms / mortality. Population Surveillance / methods. Respiratory Tract Diseases / mortality. World Health


8. |......... 13%  Craig W, Harel-Fisch Y, Fogel-Grinvald H, Dostaler S, Hetland J, Simons-Morton B, Molcho M, de Mato MG, Overpeck M, Due P, Pickett W, HBSC Violence & Injuries Prevention Focus Group, HBSC Bullying Writing Group: A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries. Int J Public Health; 2009 Sep;54 Suppl 2:216-24
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  • [Title] A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries.
  • OBJECTIVES:. (1) To compare the prevalence of bullying and victimization among boys and girls and by age in 40 countries. (2) In 6 countries, to compare rates of direct physical, direct verbal, and indirect bullying by gender, age, and country.
  • METHODS: Cross-sectional self-report surveys including items on bullying and being bullied were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11, 13 and 15 year old school children in 40 countries, N = 202,056.
  • Six countries (N = 29,127 students) included questions about specific types of bullying (e. g., direct physical, direct verbal, indirect).
  • RESULTS: Exposure to bullying varied across countries, with estimates ranging from 8.6% to 45.2% among boys, and from 4.8% to 35.8% among girls.
  • Adolescents in Baltic countries reported higher rates of bullying and victimization, whereas northern European countries reported the lowest prevalence.
  • Boys reported higher rates of bullying in all countries.
  • Rates of victimization were higher for girls in 29 of 40 countries.
  • Rates of victimization decreased by age in 30 of 40 (boys) and 25 of 39 (girls) countries.
  • CONCLUSION: There are lessons to be learned from the current research conducted in countries where the prevalence is low that could be adapted for use in countries with higher prevalence.

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  • (PMID = 19623475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8564
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / N01-HD-5-3401; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD002525-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS136910; NLM/ PMC2747624
  • [Investigator] Molcho M; Mazur J; Favresse D; Leveque A; Craig W; Pickett W; Aasvee K; Varnai D; Harel Y; Korn L; Villerusa A; Valverde PR; Scheidt P; Overpeck M; Pickett W; Boyce W; Craig W; Due P; Holstein B; Molcho M; Harel Y; Vollebergh W; Hetland J; Samdal O; Mazur J; de Matos MG; van der Sluijs W; Katreniakova Z; Overpeck M; Nansel T; Wang J
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9. |......... 13%  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Update: dracunculiasis eradication--Mali and Niger, 1993. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep; 1994 Feb 4;43(4):69-71
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  • Mali and Niger, countries in West Africa, ranked sixth and eighth in the number of reported cases of dracunculiasis (i.e., Guinea worm disease) in 1992.
  • In March 1993, Global 2000, Inc., and the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Research, Training, and Eradication of Dracunculiasis at CDC began providing direct assistance for the eradication of dracunculiasis in both countries by assigning a resident public health advisor to each country.
  • This report summarizes surveillance data for the two countries during 1991-1993 and describes their progress toward eradication of dracunculiasis.

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  • (PMID = 8295627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-2195
  • [Journal-full-title] MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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10. |......... 13%  Brismar K, Benroubi M, Nicolay C, Schmitt H, Giaconia J, Reaney M: Evaluation of insulin initiation on resource utilization and direct costs of treatment over 12 months in patients with type 2 diabetes in Europe: results from INSTIGATE and TREAT observational studies. J Med Econ; 2013 Aug;16(8):1022-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of insulin initiation on resource utilization and direct costs of treatment over 12 months in patients with type 2 diabetes in Europe: results from INSTIGATE and TREAT observational studies.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the changes in resource utilization in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Spain, and Turkey) and direct costs in four European countries (Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Greece) over the first 12 months of insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
  • Contributors to total direct costs differed between countries.
  • Ranges of total mean direct costs over the 6-month period before insulin initiation were €489.10-€658.50 (Greece-Spain); 0-6 months after insulin initiation, €573.40-€1084.70 (Greece-Spain); and 6-12 months after insulin initiation, €495.80-€859.30 (Greece-Germany).
  • Thus, the mean cost of treatment increased in all countries in the first 6 months after insulin initiation and then returned to baseline except in Germany.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Contributors to total cost differed between countries, potentially reflecting local clinical practice patterns and insulin regimens.
  • In each country, mean direct total costs of T2DM care increased during the first 6 months after insulin initiation and decreased thereafter.

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  • (PMID = 23738910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-837X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical economics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Econ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Insulin
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11. |......... 13%  Forabosco F, Jakobsen JH, Fikse WF: International genetic evaluation for direct longevity in dairy bulls. J Dairy Sci; 2009 May;92(5):2338-47
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  • [Title] International genetic evaluation for direct longevity in dairy bulls.
  • Data from 19 countries and 123,833 national sires' breeding value were used for this purpose.
  • Trait definitions and national genetic evaluation procedures were first summarized; and this showed that differences among countries existed.
  • International breeding values for direct longevity were calculated using a multi-trait across-country evaluation model.
  • Estimated genetic correlations presented in this study were similar to those presented in the literature and, in general, differed from unity because of differences in trait definitions, culling reasons, data included, evaluation procedures, genotype-environment interactions, and weak genetic ties among countries.
  • Three out of 15 countries published international EBV of direct longevity only and 12 out of 15 countries combined direct longevity with predictors (combined longevity).

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  • (PMID = 19389992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-3198
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dairy science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dairy Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. |......... 12%  Greenwood MJ, Young PA: Geographically indirect immigration to Canada: description and analysis. Int Migr Rev; 1997;31(1):51-71
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  • A geographically indirect immigrant is an individual legally admitted to Canada whose country of last permanent residence differs from country of birth.
  • Relative to geographically direct immigrants, geographically indirect immigrants tend to be older, more educated, and more highly skilled.
  • Moreover, if they were not born in an English or French speaking country, indirect immigrants are more likely to speak English and/or French capably than direct migrants born in such countries.
  • This model suggests that indirect migrants tend to be influenced by personal characteristics (age, sex, marital status, occupation, language ability), as well as by various characteristics of the country of birth (distance from Canada, income level, political conditions). "
  • [MeSH-minor] Americas. Canada. Communication. Demography. Developed Countries. Economics. North America. Population. Population Characteristics. Population Dynamics. Social Class. Socioeconomic Factors. Transients and Migrants

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  • [Copyright] excerpt
  • (PMID = 12320907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0197-9183
  • [Journal-full-title] The International migration review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Migr Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Other-IDs] IND/ RH73222; POP/ 00267032
  • [Keywords] PIP ; Destination (major topic) / Geographic Factors (major topic) / Immigrants (major topic) / International Migration (major topic) / Language (major topic) / Literacy (major topic) / Origin (major topic) / Place Of Birth (major topic) / Americas / Canada / Communication / Demographic Factors / Developed Countries / Economic Factors / Educational Status / Migrants / Migration / North America / Northern America / Population / Population Characteristics / Population Dynamics / Socioeconomic Factors / Socioeconomic Status
  • [General-notes] PIP/ TJ: INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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13. |......... 12%  Barreyro FJ, Krabshuis J, Planzer del Campo M, Bai JC: [Why are there few publications by the Argentine gastroenterology? Considerations on a bibliometric analysis of Argentine publications on gastroenterology]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2009 Mar;39(1):9-17
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  • The global Argentinean scientific research output is far below that of developed countries and has been affected in direct manner by economic, political and social disturbances in the country.
  • The comparative analysis within countries with health indicators similarities has shown a low biomedical and gastroenterology research output, however, the rate of acceptance at the 18 top gastroenterological journals is acceptable (15%).
  • We conclude that the Argentinean biomedical and gastroenterological research output is scanty compared with developed countries and countries with comparable health indicators.

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  • (PMID = 19408733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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14. |......... 12%  Keiding H, Jørgensen KP: A cost-effectiveness analysis of immunotherapy with SQ allergen extract for patients with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in selected European countries. Curr Med Res Opin; 2007 May;23(5):1113-20
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  • [Title] A cost-effectiveness analysis of immunotherapy with SQ allergen extract for patients with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in selected European countries.
  • SCOPE: In this paper we investigate the cost-effectiveness of immunization therapy with Alutard SQ (ASQ) and compare the cost-effectiveness in countries where the therapy has been in use in order to assess the impact of national therapeutic practices on the results of health economic assessments.
  • FINDINGS: The computations result in cost-effectiveness ratios for allergen immunization between 10,000 euros and 20,000 euros per QALY even without provision for indirect costs, and achieving dominance in most countries where indirect costs have also been taken into account.
  • The country comparisons show that the direct cost of administrating the up-dosing and maintenance differs considerably between countries, and that the cost of medical staff is substantial, constituting in most cases more than half of the direct costs of the immunization therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The study shows that immunotherapy with SQ allergen extract is cost-effective in a wide range of national environments, and that cost-effectiveness differences by country are largely a result of different practices in the up-dosing phase.

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  • (PMID = 17519078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-4877
  • [Journal-full-title] Current medical research and opinion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Med Res Opin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alutard SQ allergen; 0 / Plant Extracts
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15. |......... 11%  VanRaden PM, Sullivan PG: International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle. Genet Sel Evol; 2010;42:7
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  • Higher reliabilities from larger genotype files promote cooperation across country borders.
  • Genomic information can be exchanged across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying multi-trait across-country evaluation (MACE) to account for correlated residuals originating from the use of foreign evaluations, or by multi-trait analysis of genotypes for countries that use the same reference animals.
  • METHODS: Traditional MACE assumes independent residuals because each daughter is measured in only one country.
  • Genomic MACE could account for residual correlations using daughter equivalents from genomic data as a fraction of the total in each country and proportions of bulls shared.
  • MACE methods developed to combine separate within-country genomic evaluations were compared to direct, multi-country analysis of combined genotypes using simulated genomic and phenotypic data for 8,193 bulls in nine countries.
  • RESULTS: Reliabilities for young bulls were much higher for across-country than within-country genomic evaluations as measured by squared correlations of estimated with true breeding values.
  • Sharing of reference genotypes among countries created large residual correlations, especially for young bulls, that are accounted for in genomic MACE.
  • CONCLUSIONS: International genomic evaluations can be computed either by modifying MACE to account for residual correlations across countries or by multi-trait evaluation of combined genotype files.

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  • [Cites] J Dairy Sci. 2001 Jul;84(7):1759-67 [11467826.001]
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  • (PMID = 20193071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet. Sel. Evol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2842236
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16. |......... 11%  de Mattos D, Misztal I, Bertrand JK: Variance and covariance components for weaning weight for Herefords in three countries. J Anim Sci; 2000 Jan;78(1):33-7
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  • [Title] Variance and covariance components for weaning weight for Herefords in three countries.
  • Estimation was done using a complete animal model, relatively large data sets, and the same methodology for the three countries in order to determine whether genetic parameters for weaning weight were homogeneous across environments.
  • Ten samples were obtained from each country by eliminating data from small herds with fewer than 500 records, selecting herds at random from the entire data set after removing the small herds, and then retaining the direct-sire-connected contemporary groups within each sample.
  • The estimates were pooled by calculating the arithmetic mean of the 10 samples from within each country.
  • Direct and maternal (in parentheses) heritability estimates were .24 (.16), .20 (.16), and .23 (.18) for USA, Canada, and Uruguay, respectively.
  • Covariance between direct and maternal was negative in all countries, accounting for 6, 8, and 10% of the total phenotypic variation, and the total dam effect was 32.5, 37.0, and 34.0% in USA, Canada, and Uruguay, respectively.
  • Total heritabilities were similar among the countries, with values of .19, .19, and .17 for the three respective countries.
  • The similarity of genetic and environmental parameters across the three countries suggests that joint genetic evaluation is feasible across environments provided that the genotype x environment interaction is negligible and can be ignored.

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  • (PMID = 10682800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of animal science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Anim. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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17. |......... 11%  Keeffe JE: Costs of vision impairment: present and future issues. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res; 2007 Oct;7(5):523-7
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  • Examples are given of global estimates and from two industrialized countries, Australia and the USA.
  • The comparisons between these countries illustrate how the differences in healthcare systems influence the contribution of direct and indirect costs to the total.

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  • (PMID = 20528396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8379
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. |......... 11%  Cots F, Castells X, García O, Riu M, Felipe A, Vall O: Impact of immigration on the cost of emergency visits in Barcelona (Spain). BMC Health Serv Res; 2007;7:9
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  • BACKGROUND: The impact of immigration on health services utilisation has been analysed by several studies performed in countries with lower levels of immigration than Spain.
  • The country of origin, gender, age, discharge-related circumstances (hospital admission, discharge to home, or death), medical specialty, and variable cost related to medical care were registered.
  • Immigrants were grouped into those from high-income countries (IHIC) and those from low-income countries (ILIC) and the average direct cost was compared by country of origin.
  • A multivariate linear mixed model of direct costs was adjusted by country of origin (classified in five groups) and by the individual variables of age, gender, hospital admission, and death as a cause of discharge.
  • No differences were found between IHIC and ILIC, suggesting that this result was due to the ease of access to emergency services and to lack of knowledge about the country's health system rather than to poor health status resulting from immigrants' socioeconomic position.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Developed Countries. Developing Countries. Economics, Medical. Episode of Care. Female. Hospital Costs. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Patient Admission. Spain / epidemiology. Specialization

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  • [Cites] Prev Med. 2002 Sep;35(3):225-31 [12202064.001]
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  • (PMID = 17239236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6963
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC health services research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Health Serv Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1783650
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19. |......... 11%  Irwin JA, Ikramov A, Saunier J, Bodner M, Amory S, Röck A, O'Callaghan J, Nuritdinov A, Atakhodjaev S, Mukhamedov R, Parson W, Parsons TJ: The mtDNA composition of Uzbekistan: a microcosm of Central Asian patterns. Int J Legal Med; 2010 May;124(3):195-204
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  • Although all samples were obtained from individuals residing in Uzbekistan, individuals with direct ancestry from neighboring Central Asian countries are included.
  • Individuals of Uzbek ancestry represent five distinct geographic regions of Uzbekistan: Fergana, Karakalpakstan, Khorezm, Qashkadarya, and Tashkent.
  • Individuals with direct ancestry in nearby countries originate from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan.
  • Despite their current close geographic proximity, the populations with ancestry in neighboring countries show little sign of admixture and retain the primary mtDNA patterns of their source populations.
  • The genetic distances and haplogroup distributions among the ethnic populations are more indicative of a broad east-west cline among their source populations than of their relatively small geographic distances from one another in Uzbekistan.

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  • (PMID = 20140442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of legal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Legal Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Austria / Austrian Science Fund FWF / / L 397-B05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial
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20. |......... 11%  Brown G, Allen L, Torkelson A: Direct patient interventions that can reduce maternal mortality in developing countries: a systematic review. Fam Med; 2013 Sep;45(8):550-7
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  • [Title] Direct patient interventions that can reduce maternal mortality in developing countries: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Maternal mortality is a major concern in developing countries.
  • This study identified and evaluated specific direct patient interventions made in developing countries that could result in a decrease of the maternal mortality rate.
  • Active management of the third stage of labor, specifically the use of uterotonic agents, decreased a woman's risk of postpartum hemorrhage, which is the leading cause of maternal mortality in most developing countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage. Developing Countries. Dietary Supplements. Maternal Mortality. Obstetric Labor Complications / therapy. Pregnancy Complications / therapy


21. |......... 11%  Palla I, Trieste L, Tani C, Talarico R, Cortesi PA, Mosca M, Turchetti G: A systematic literature review of the economic impact of ankylosing spondylitis. Clin Exp Rheumatol; 2012 Jul-Aug;30(4 Suppl 73):S136-41
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  • Interestingly, a common observation is that in AS indirect costs are higher than the use of direct healthcare resources.
  • Country, age, gender, and severity of the diseases impact on per patient annual costs AS related.
  • The differences observed among countries on absolute and relative (compared with direct costs) amounts of indirect costs can be explained with the capability of a country of actually measure productivity losses and indirect costs.


22. |......... 11%  Trawén A, Maraste P, Persson U: International comparison of costs of a fatal casualty of road accidents in 1990 and 1999. Accid Anal Prev; 2002 May;34(3):323-32
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  • The purpose of this study is to assemble information of costs per fatal casualty in traffic accidents, adopted by authorities in different countries. analyse and compare these figures as well as the methods used for estimating these values.
  • A questionnaire was sent to 19 countries from which 11 gave information on cost per fatality and methods of valuation.
  • The costs per fatality, usually defined as direct and indirect costs plus a value of safety per se, are compared both between countries and over time, 1990 and 1999, for each country.

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  • (PMID = 11939361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4575
  • [Journal-full-title] Accident; analysis and prevention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Accid Anal Prev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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23. |......... 11%  Vlahov V, Thyroff-Friesinger U, Koytchev R, Bakracheva N, Gatchev E: Bioequivalence studies with metformin: comparability of reference tablets from different origins. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther; 2005 Sep;43(9):457-62
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  • When no direct comparisons between originator products in different countries are available, registration authorities are sometimes only prepared to grant registration for a generic product on the basis of a comparison with the originator product in the respective country.
  • INTERPRETATION: In the case of metformin, the reference products available in the countries examined were very similar.

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  • (PMID = 16163900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-1965
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Tablets; 9100L32L2N / Metformin
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24. |......... 11%  Wimo A, Jonsson L, Winblad B: An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and direct costs of dementia in 2003. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord; 2006;21(3):175-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and direct costs of dementia in 2003.
  • The worldwide costs of dementia were estimated from prevalence figures for different regions, and cost-of-illness studies from key countries using a model based on the relationship between direct costs of care per demented and the gross domestic product per capita in each country.
  • The worldwide direct costs for dementia in 2003 are estimated at 156 billion USD in the main scenario based on a worldwide prevalence of 27.7 million demented persons (sensitivity analysis: 129-159 billion USD).
  • Although there are several sources of uncertainty, it is obvious that the worldwide costs are substantial and the expected increase in elderly people in the developing countries presents a great challenge.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cross-Sectional Studies. Developed Countries. Economics. Humans. Incidence. Population Dynamics

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  • (PMID = 16401889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1420-8008
  • [Journal-full-title] Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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25. |......... 11%  Caldarelli G, Cristelli M, Gabrielli A, Pietronero L, Scala A, Tacchella A: A network analysis of countries' export flows: firm grounds for the building blocks of the economy. PLoS One; 2012;7(10):e47278
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  • [Title] A network analysis of countries' export flows: firm grounds for the building blocks of the economy.
  • In this paper we analyze the bipartite network of countries and products from UN data on country production.
  • We define the country-country and product-product projected networks and introduce a novel method of filtering information based on elements' similarity.
  • As a result we find that country clustering reveals unexpected socio-geographic links among the most competing countries.
  • To overcome such an issue, we introduce an alternative methodology (based on biased Markov chains) that allows to rank countries in a conceptually consistent way.
  • Our analysis uncovers a strong non-linear interaction between the diversification of a country and the ubiquity of its products, thus suggesting the possible need of moving towards more efficient and direct non-linear fixpoint algorithms to rank countries and products in the global market.

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  • (PMID = 23094044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3477170
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26. |......... 10%  Lindqvist R, Smeds Alenius L, Runesdotter S, Ensio A, Jylhä V, Kinnunen J, Strømseng Sjetne I, Tvedt C, Wiberg Tjønnfjord M, Tishelman C: Organization of nursing care in three Nordic countries: relationships between nurses' workload, level of involvement in direct patient care, job satisfaction, and intention to leave. BMC Nurs; 2014;13:27
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  • [Title] Organization of nursing care in three Nordic countries: relationships between nurses' workload, level of involvement in direct patient care, job satisfaction, and intention to leave.
  • Despite similarities, there are differences in the working situations for RNs within these Nordic countries.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze associations between RNs' patient workload and level of involvement in direct patient care, their job satisfaction and intention to leave in these countries.
  • RESULTS: We found statistically significant differences in RNs' level of involvement in direct patient care (p < 0.001, Sweden compared to Norway and Finland), in patient workload and in number of patients needing ADL assistance and surveillance.
  • A U-formed relationship was found between level of involvement in direct patient care and intention to leave in Sweden, and more satisfaction among RNs in roles with more direct patient care (OR = 1.16, 1.02 ≤ CI95% ≤ 1.32).
  • Patient workload is associated with job satisfaction and intention to leave to some degree in all countries, i.e. greater patient workload, less job satisfaction and greater intention to leave.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that more attention paid to patient mix, workload and role of RNs in patient care might potentially diminish intention to leave and increase job satisfaction in these Nordic countries.

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  • (PMID = 25309127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6955
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4193956
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Health services research / Job satisfaction / Nursing / Organization and administration / Workload
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27. |......... 10%  Krasteva M, Bons B, Tozer S, Rich K, Hoting E, Hollenberg D, Fuchs A, Fautz R: Contact allergy to hair colouring products. The cosmetovigilance experience of 4 companies (2003-2006). Eur J Dermatol; 2010 Jan-Feb;20(1):85-95
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  • The objective was to determine whether there was any time effect (trend to increase or decrease), country effect (significant difference between the countries included in the analysis) or product type effect (direct or oxidation), as well as to identify risk factors.
  • The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis to direct hair colouring products was lower for all four companies compared to oxidative hair dyes.

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  • (PMID = 19797040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Hair Dyes
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28. |......... 10%  Kirigia JM, Preker A, Carrin G, Mwikisa C, Diarra-Nama AJ: An overview of health financing patterns and the way forward in the WHO African Region. East Afr Med J; 2006 Sep;83(9 Suppl):S1-28
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  • RESULTS: The analysis revealed that: fifteen countries spent less than 4.5% of their GDP on health; forty four countries spent less than 15% of their national annual budget on health; sixty three percent of the governments in the Region spent less than US$10 per person per year; fifty per cent of the total expenditure on health in 24 countries came from government sources; prepaid health financing mechanisms cover only a small proportion of populations in the Region; private spending constituted over 40% of the total expenditure on health in 31; direct out-of-pocket expenditures constituted over 50% of the private health expenditure in 38 countries.
  • CONCLUSION: Every country needs to develop clear pro-poor health financing policy and a comprehensive health financing strategic plan with a clear roadmap of how it plans to transit from the current health financing state dominated by inequitable, catastrophic and impoverishing direct out-of-pocket payments to a visionary scenario of universal coverage.
  • The strategic plan should strengthening of health sector advocacy and health financing capacities, health economics evidence generation and utilisation in decision-making, making better use of available and expected resources, monitoring of equity in financing, strengthening of the exemption mechanisms, managed removal of direct out-of-pocket payments (for countries that choose to), and improving country-led sectoral coordination mechanisms (e.g.
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa. Developing Countries. Financing, Government. Health Care Sector. Humans. Models, Organizational. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17476860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] East African medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East Afr Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kenya
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29. |......... 10%  Dubowitz G, Detlefs S, McQueen KA: Global anesthesia workforce crisis: a preliminary survey revealing shortages contributing to undesirable outcomes and unsafe practices. World J Surg; 2010 Mar;34(3):438-44
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  • However, few low and middle income countries (LMICs) have the infrastructure or capacity to provide surgical services to meet this growing need.
  • Equally, few of these countries have been assessed for key infrastructural capacity including surgical and anesthesia providers, equipment, and supplies.
  • Information was obtained from e-mail respondents at national health care addresses, and from individuals working in-country on anesthesia-related projects.
  • RESULTS: Workers from 6 of 98 countries responded to direct e-mail inquiries, and an additional five responses came from individuals who were working or had worked in-country at the time of the survey.
  • The data collected revealed that the per-capita anesthesia provider ratio in the countries surveyed was often 100 times lower than in developed countries.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study revealed that the number of anesthesia providers available per capita of population is markedly reduced in low and lower middle income countries compared to developed countries.
  • As anesthesia providers are an integral part of the delivery of safe and effective surgical care, it is essential that more data is collected to fully understand the deficiencies in workforce and capacity in low and middle income countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthesiology / manpower. Developing Countries / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Cites] Trop Doct. 2000 Jul;30(3):146-9 [10902471.001]
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  • (PMID = 19795163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2816796
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30. |......... 10%  Verhaeren R: Future trends in international migration to Europe. Int Migr Rev; 1993;27(3):630-8
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  • Aspects considered include changes in foreign direct investments, changes in the size of the European labor market, and the potential emigration of the labor force in underdeveloped countries.
  • [MeSH-minor] Demography. Developed Countries. Europe. Population. Population Dynamics. Research. Statistics as Topic

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  • (PMID = 12287572.001).
  • [ISSN] 0197-9183
  • [Journal-full-title] The International migration review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Migr Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Other-IDs] IND/ 8028287; POP/ 00230209
  • [Keywords] PIP ; Economic Conditions (major topic) / Economic Development (major topic) / Human Resources (major topic) / International Migration (major topic) / Labor Force (major topic) / Labor Migration (major topic) / Manpower Needs (major topic) / Population Forecast (major topic) / Demographic Factors / Developed Countries / Economic Factors / Estimation Technics / Europe / Macroeconomic Factors / Migration / Population / Population Dynamics / Research Methodology
  • [General-notes] PIP/ TJ: INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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31. |......... 10%  Papanicolaou S, Pons ME, Hampel C, Monz B, Quail D, Schulenburg MG, Wagg A, Sykes D: Medical resource utilisation and cost of care for women seeking treatment for urinary incontinence in an outpatient setting. Examples from three countries participating in the PURE study. Maturitas; 2005 Nov 30;52 Suppl 2:S35-47
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  • [Title] Medical resource utilisation and cost of care for women seeking treatment for urinary incontinence in an outpatient setting. Examples from three countries participating in the PURE study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the medical resource use and direct costs of treatment for women with urinary incontinence (UI) in European countries.
  • SETTING: Investigators being either general practitioners (GPs) and/or specialists, i.e. urologists and gynaecologists, in 14 European countries participated in PURE.
  • The direct medical costs were calculated by attaching the unit costs from the perspective of the relevant health insurance in each country to the country-specific resource use.
  • RESULTS: Variation in medical resource use and cost of treatment between the three countries was observed, reflective of the differences in the healthcare systems and whether specialists and/or GPs provided the care.
  • In all three countries most of the women had used protective pads, which more than half the patients paying for them out-of-pocket, despite potential healthcare reimbursement schemes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides an estimation of resource use and costs associated with UI in treatment-seeking European women, exemplified here in three countries.

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  • (PMID = 16297577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5122
  • [Journal-full-title] Maturitas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Maturitas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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32. |......... 10%  VanItallie TB: Prevalence of obesity. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 1996 Dec;25(4):887-905
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  • Recently, national surveys of prevalence of obesity in the United States and some European countries have been reported in terms of criteria that permit direct comparison of the findings.

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  • (PMID = 8977051.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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33. |......... 10%  Warner KE, Hodgson TA, Carroll CE: Medical costs of smoking in the United States: estimates, their validity, and their implications. Tob Control; 1999;8(3):290-300
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  • OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates of the medical costs of smoking in the United States and to consider their relevance to assessing the costs of smoking in developing countries and the net economic burden of smoking.
  • This literature has direct methodological relevance to developing countries interested in assessing the magnitude of their current cost-of-smoking burden and their future burdens, with differences in tobacco use histories and the availability of chronic disease treatment affecting country-specific estimates.
  • [MeSH-minor] Developing Countries. Female. Health Status. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / economics. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Male. Peer Review. Reproducibility of Results. United States

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  • (PMID = 10599574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0964-4563
  • [Journal-full-title] Tobacco control
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tob Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 42
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1763946
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34. |......... 10%  Yousefi-Nooraie R, Shakiba B, Mortaz-Hejri S: Country development and manuscript selection bias: a review of published studies. BMC Med Res Methodol; 2006;6:37
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  • [Title] Country development and manuscript selection bias: a review of published studies.
  • We aimed to compare the methodological quality and statistical appeal of trials from countries with different development status and to determine their association with the journal impact factors and language of publication.
  • METHODS: Based on the World Bank income criteria countries were divided into four groups.
  • Country income had an inverse linear association with the presence of randomization (chi2 for trend = 5.6, p = 0.02) and a direct association with the use of blinding (chi2 for trend = 6.9, p = 0.008); although in low income countries the probability of blinding was increased from 36% in 1993 to 46% in 2003.
  • CONCLUSION: The impact of country development on manuscript selection bias is considerable and may be increasing over time.
  • [MeSH-major] Developing Countries / economics. Manuscripts as Topic. Periodicals as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Publication Bias. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic / standards

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  • (PMID = 16879753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2288
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medical research methodology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med Res Methodol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 20
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1550721
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35. |......... 10%  Bredenkamp C, Mendola M, Gragnolati M: Catastrophic and impoverishing effects of health expenditure: new evidence from the Western Balkans. Health Policy Plan; 2011 Jul;26(4):349-56
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  • While our analyses are not without their limitations, and the lack of comparability across instruments precludes a direct comparison across countries, there is no doubt that health expenditure contributes substantially to the impoverishment of households-increasing the incidence of poverty and pushing poor households into deeper poverty-in each country.
  • Informal payments are substantial in all countries, and are particularly high in Albania.
  • As countries in the sub-region continue the process of health system reform, an important policy question should be how to protect vulnerable groups from the catastrophic and impoverishing effects of health care expenditure.

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  • (PMID = 20974750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2237
  • [Journal-full-title] Health policy and planning
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Health Policy Plan
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. |......... 10%  LANGRIDGE WP, KERNAGHAN RJ, GLOVER PE: A review of recent knowledge of the ecology of the main vectors of trypanosomiasis. Bull World Health Organ; 1963;28(5-6):671-701
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  • In this survey of recent ecological research on the main vectors of trypanosomiasis in those countries of East, Central and West Africa that are not predominantly French-speaking, the authors, after outlining the distribution of tsetse flies and the type of country in which they occur, discuss the direct and indirect effects of climate on these insects-particularly on their physiological water balance and on pupal fat reserves-and their recent advances into new areas.

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  • (PMID = 13928678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of the World Health Organization
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. World Health Organ.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Not Available
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2554960
  • [Keywords] NLM ; TRYPANOSOMIASIS, AFRICAN (major topic) / TSETSE FLIES (major topic)
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37. |......... 9%  Begley CE, Beghi E: The economic cost of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Epilepsia; 2002;43 Suppl 4:3-9
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  • The methods used by economists to estimate the direct and indirect costs of epilepsy are reviewed and results from studies in different countries are discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Cost of Illness. Costs and Cost Analysis / methods. Cross-Cultural Comparison. Cross-Sectional Studies. Direct Service Costs / statistics & numerical data. Female. France / epidemiology. Great Britain / epidemiology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 12059995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-9580
  • [Journal-full-title] Epilepsia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epilepsia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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38. |......... 9%  Martin AO, Devadas SK: Patents with an "I" = patients. Ann Health Law; 2009;18(2):261-80, 7 p. preceding 7
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  • The authors further posit that countries that have enacted stronger intellectual property rights and research incentives have seen tremendous increases in foreign direct investment.

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  • (PMID = 21950241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-2994
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of health law / Loyola University Chicago, School of Law, Institute for Health Law
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Health Law
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. |......... 9%  Baeza-Herrera C, Sanjuán-Fabián H, Medellín-Sierra UD, Nájera-Garduño H, García-Cabello LM: [Pulmonary contusion and hemothorax due to explosion]. Cir Cir; 2006 Jan-Feb;74(1):55-7
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  • Folklore and "uses and customs" in countries such as Mexico, under certain circumstances, have direct influences on risks for traumatic injuries.

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  • (PMID = 17257490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugia y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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40. |......... 9%  Chen PG, Auerbach DI, Muench U, Curry LA, Bradley EH: Policy solutions to address the foreign-educated and foreign-born health care workforce in the United States. Health Aff (Millwood); 2013 Nov;32(11):1906-13
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  • We review the distribution of these workers and their countries of origin, and we summarize the literature concerning their contributions to US health care.
  • We also report on these workers' experiences in the United States and the impact their migration has on their home countries.
  • Finally, we present policy strategies to increase the benefits of health care worker migration to the United States while mitigating its negative effects on the workers' home countries.
  • These strategies include attracting more people with legal permanent residency status into the health workforce, reimbursing home countries for the cost of educating health workers who subsequently migrate to the United States, improving policies to facilitate the entry of direct care workers into the country, advancing efforts to promote and monitor ethical migration and recruitment practices, and encouraging the implementation of programs by US employers to improve the experience of immigrating health workers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Health Services Needs and Demand / trends. Humans. Professional Practice Location. United States

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  • (PMID = 24191079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-5208
  • [Journal-full-title] Health affairs (Project Hope)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Health Aff (Millwood)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Nurses / Physicians / Workforce Issues
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41. |......... 9%  Markham WA, Lopez ML, Aveyard P, Herrero P, Bridle C, Comas A, Charlton A, Thomas H: Mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age, and gender on the cognitive and social determinants of adolescent smoking in Spain and the UK: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health; 2009;9:173
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  • [Title] Mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age, and gender on the cognitive and social determinants of adolescent smoking in Spain and the UK: a cross-sectional study.
  • Distal factors such as country of residence, age and gender are external to the model.
  • Participants' age, gender, smoking intentions and ASE determinant scores were identified and linear regression analysis was used to examine the mediated, moderated and direct effects of country of residence, age and gender on participants' smoking intentions.
  • The distribution of ASE determinant scores varied by country and predicted intention.
  • The influence of each ASE determinant on intention was moderated by country.
  • Country had a large direct influence on intention (1.72 points on a 7 point scale) but the effects of age and gender were mediated by the ASE determinants.
  • CONCLUSION: The ASE model may not capture important cultural factors related to adolescent smoking and the relative contribution of particular ASE determinants to adolescent smoking intentions may differ between countries.
  • Future European trans-national adolescent smoking prevention programmes may benefit from greater understanding of country-level cultural norms.


42. |......... 9%  Ito S, Iguchi Y: Japanese direct investment and its impact on migration in the ASEAN 4. Asian Pac Migr J; 1994;3(2-3):265-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Japanese direct investment and its impact on migration in the ASEAN 4.
  • "The purpose of this article is to show the relationship among Japanese direct investment...,domestic labor markets, and international labor migration in ASEAN-4 countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand).
  • The effects of foreign direct investment on skilled labor migration are also considered. "
  • [MeSH-minor] Asia. Asia, Southeastern. Demography. Developed Countries. Developing Countries. Economics. Far East. Financial Management. Health Manpower. Indonesia. Japan. Malaysia. Philippines. Population. Population Dynamics. Thailand

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  • [Copyright] excerpt
  • (PMID = 12289775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0117-1968
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian and Pacific migration journal : APMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac Migr J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] PHILIPPINES
  • [Other-IDs] IND/ 8031090; POP/ 00242814
  • [Keywords] PIP ; Foreign Aid (major topic) / International Migration (major topic) / Investments (major topic) / Labor Force (major topic) / Labor Migration (major topic) / Asia / Demographic Factors / Developed Countries / Developing Countries / Eastern Asia / Economic Factors / Financial Activities / Human Resources / Indonesia / Japan / Malaysia / Migration / Philippines / Population / Population Dynamics / Southeastern Asia / Thailand
  • [General-notes] PIP/ TJ: ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL
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43. |......... 9%  Harant J: [Methodical approaches to surveys of general morbidity in the population of other countries]. Cesk Zdrav; 1990 Sep;38(8-9):340-7
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  • [Title] [Methodical approaches to surveys of general morbidity in the population of other countries].
  • General morbidity surveys of the population in western countries are based on interviews, while in socialist countries general morbidity surveys are usually done by direct medical examination or by assessment of the attended morbidity, most frequently, however, a combination of both approaches is used.
  • Neither in interviews nor in the method based on direct or indirect medical examination so far sufficient unification of methodological approaches has been achieved to compare, based on these results, the health status of the population in different countries.

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  • (PMID = 2225206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-0689
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceskoslovenské zdravotnictví
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Zdrav
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] CZECHOSLOVAKIA
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44. |......... 9%  Vellas B, Reynish E, Robert P: Commentary on "The Third Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia, 2006.". Alzheimers Dement; 2007 Oct;3(4):444-5
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  • The subjects presented are under active discussion in many countries, with the goal of direct applications in daily clinical practice.

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  • (PMID = 19595966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5279
  • [Journal-full-title] Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alzheimers Dement
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. |......... 9%  Jayasekara R, Schultz T: The feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries: a comprehensive systematic review. Int J Evid Based Healthc; 2006 Sep;4(3):208-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries: a comprehensive systematic review.
  • Objectives  The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries.
  • Inclusion criteria  This review considered quantitative and qualitative research papers that addressed the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing developed countries' nursing curricula into developing countries.
  • Another two opinion papers evaluated the adaptability of another country curriculum models in their countries.
  • Conclusion  The evidence regarding the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing developed countries' nursing curricula into developing countries is weak because of the paucity of high-quality studies.
  • However, some lower-level evidence suggesting that direct transfer of the curriculum model from one country to another is not appropriate without first assessing the cultural context of both countries.
  • Second, the approach of considering international, regional and local experiences more feasible and presumably a more effective strategy for adapting of a country's curriculum into a culturally or economically different country.

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  • (PMID = 21631769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-1595
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of evidence-based healthcare
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Evid Based Healthc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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46. |......... 9%  McQuide PA, Delvaux T, Buekens P: Prenatal care incentives in Europe. Study Group on Barriers and Incentives to Prenatal Care in Europe. J Public Health Policy; 1998;19(3):331-49
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of the study was to identify prenatal care incentives and benefits in 17 European countries.
  • All participating countries completed a questionnaire on their prenatal care delivery system, incentives and benefits.
  • Results were analyzed according to their direct or indirect relationship with prenatal care attendance.
  • Direct incentives require a prenatal care visit to be eligible for the benefit.
  • All 17 countries offer direct incentives, such as paid maternity leave.
  • In 9 countries, pregnant women receive direct financial incentives.
  • Eleven countries offer indirect incentives, such as transportation benefits.

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  • (PMID = 9798375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0197-5897
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of public health policy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Public Health Policy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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47. |......... 9%  Delmonico FL: The international realities of live donor kidney transplantation. Kidney Int; 2009 May;75(10):1003-5
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  • Horvat and coauthors report on trends in living kidney transplantation in 69 countries, having assembled the data from registries, national societies, the medical literature, and direct contact with transplant centers.


48. |......... 9%  Brunner R, Kaess M, Parzer P, Fischer G, Carli V, Hoven CW, Wasserman C, Sarchiapone M, Resch F, Apter A, Balazs J, Barzilay S, Bobes J, Corcoran P, Cosmanm D, Haring C, Iosuec M, Kahn JP, Keeley H, Meszaros G, Nemes B, Podlogar T, Postuvan V, Saiz PA, Sisask M, Tubiana A, Varnik A, Wasserman D: Life-time prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent direct self-injurious behavior: a comparative study of findings in 11 European countries. J Child Psychol Psychiatry; 2014 Apr;55(4):337-48
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Life-time prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent direct self-injurious behavior: a comparative study of findings in 11 European countries.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and associated psychosocial factors of occasional and repetitive direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB), such as self-cutting, -burning, -biting, -hitting, and skin damage by other methods, in representative adolescent samples from 11 European countries.
  • METHODS: Cross-sectional assessment of adolescents was performed within the European Union funded project, Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE), which was conducted in 11 European countries.
  • Lifetime prevalence ranged from 17.1% to 38.6% across countries.
  • Associations between psychosocial variables and D-SIB were strongly influenced by both gender and country.
  • Prevalence as well as psychosocial correlates seems to be significantly influenced by both gender and country.

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  • [Copyright] © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
  • [CommentIn] J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 Apr;55(4):349-51 [24661063.001]
  • (PMID = 24215434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-7610
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Child Psychol Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Direct self-injurious behavior / adolescents / gender / nonsuicidal self-injury / psychopathology / self-harm / suicide
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49. |......... 9%  Yamada Y, Sekiya M: Licensing and training requirements for direct care workers in Japan: what can the United States and Japan learn from each other? J Aging Soc Policy; 2003;15(4):113-29
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  • [Title] Licensing and training requirements for direct care workers in Japan: what can the United States and Japan learn from each other?
  • Shortages of direct care workers have been of concern both in the United States and in Japan.
  • This article compares issues surrounding long-term care provisions in the two countries and introduces Japan's unique licensure and certificate system for direct care workers.
  • Japan has established three levels of direct care worker certificates and a direct care licensure, which can be potentially used as a career ladder.

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  • (PMID = 14733446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0895-9420
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of aging & social policy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Aging Soc Policy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. |......... 9%  Stahl HC, Butenschoen VM, Tran HT, Gozzer E, Skewes R, Mahendradhata Y, Runge-Ranzinger S, Kroeger A, Farlow A: Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies. BMC Public Health; 2013;13:1048
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  • [Title] Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies.
  • METHODS: Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia.
  • Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems.The country case studies--conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$).
  • The proportions of the different cost components (vector control; surveillance; information, education and communication; direct medical and indirect costs), as percentage of total costs, differed across the respective countries.
  • Resources used for dengue disease control and treatment were country specific.

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  • [Cites] Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Aug;13(8):1022-41 [18768080.001]
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  • (PMID = 24195519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2458
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 089276
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4228321
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51. |......... 9%  Sanz-Granda A: Probabilistic cost-minimisation analysis of darbepoetin alpha versus epoetin alpha in treating anaemia secondary to chronic renal failure. Assessment in Spanish clinical practice. Farm Hosp; 2009 Jul-Aug;33(4):208-16
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  • INTRODUCTION: The direct transfer of the results of pharmaco-economic studies between countries may not be suitable if the proper adaptations are not made to take into account differences in treatment patterns, resource use and costs from country to country.

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  • HSDB. structure - EPOETIN ALFA.
  • HSDB. structure - DARBEPOETIN ALFA.
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  • (PMID = 19712609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-753X
  • [Journal-full-title] Farmacia hospitalaria : órgano oficial de expresión científica de la Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Farm Hosp
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hematinics; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin; 113427-24-0 / epoetin alfa; 15UQ94PT4P / darbepoetin alfa
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52. |......... 9%  Krahn GL, Hammond L, Turner A: A cascade of disparities: health and health care access for people with intellectual disabilities. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev; 2006;12(1):70-82
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  • Recommendations across multiple countries and organizations are synthesized as guidelines to direct future action.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16435327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1080-4013
  • [Journal-full-title] Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 130
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53. |......... 9%  Camilleri M, Williams DE: Economic burden of irritable bowel syndrome. Proposed strategies to control expenditures. Pharmacoeconomics; 2000 Apr;17(4):331-8
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  • It has been suggested that the annual direct costs for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are now around $US41 billion in the 8 most industrialised countries.
  • This paper reviews the data on calculations of direct costs.
  • Strategies to reduce direct costs must include physician and patient education, paramedical-based education and therapy, lay support groups, early consideration of psychosocial issues and psychological treatments, avoidance of unnecessary investigations and optimising the doctor-patient relationship.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cost Control. Direct Service Costs. Humans. Physician-Patient Relations

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  • (PMID = 10947488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-7690
  • [Journal-full-title] PharmacoEconomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacoeconomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / K24 02638; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK54681
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] NEW ZEALAND
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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54. |......... 9%  Podobnik B, Baaquie BE, Bishop S, Njavro D, Li B: Growth versus government management improvement during economic downturn. Sci Rep; 2013;3:1612
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  • Here we focus on recession years because during expansion even countries with bad economic policies may experience large growth.
  • For the 2008-2011 economic downturn and for 57 countries, we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with ΔGCI.
  • Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries, where I is proportional to GCI(α).

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  • [Cites] Sci Rep. 2012;2:678 [22997552.001]
  • (PMID = 23563321.001).
  • [ISSN] 2045-2322
  • [Journal-full-title] Scientific reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3619138
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55. |......... 9%  Arredondo A, Parada I: Financing indicators for health care decentralization in Latin America: information and suggestions for health planning. Int J Health Plann Manage; 2001 Jul-Sep;16(3):259-76
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  • Taking into account feasibility, political and technical criteria, three Latin American countries were selected as study populations: Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru.
  • In the second phase, the study referred to primary data collected in a survey of key personnel from the health sectors of each country.
  • Taking into account the changes implemented in the three countries, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each country in financing and decentralization, a rule for decision-making is proposed that attempts to identify the main financial changes implemented in each country and the basic indicators that can be used in future years to direct the planning, assessment, adjustment and correction of health financing and decentralization.

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  • (PMID = 11596561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0749-6753
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of health planning and management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Health Plann Manage
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. |......... 8%  Dias JJ, Garcia-Elias M: Hand injury costs. Injury; 2006 Nov;37(11):1071-7
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  • This review discusses the direct and indirect costs of hand injury, the ability of countries to pay these costs and suggests some ways of minimising these costs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cost of Illness. Direct Service Costs. Female. Great Britain / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Unnecessary Procedures / economics


57. |......... 8%  Serrano LaVertu D, Linares AM: [Ethical principles of biomedical research in humans: application and limitations in Latin America and the Caribbean]. Bol Oficina Sanit Panam; 1990 May-Jun;108(5-6):489-99
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  • The characteristics and limitations that investigators in developed countries should take into account in conducting biomedical research on human subjects in regions such as Latin America and the Caribbean are reviewed.
  • The authors first cite international ethical principles that have been established in the developed countries to serve as a guide in dealing with the ethical problems that arise in this type of research.
  • These principles should always be borne in mind by every investigator, regardless of the country where the research is being done.
  • The paper goes on to briefly review some of the circumstances in certain Latin American and Caribbean countries that could pose practical limitations for direct application of the ethical principles described.

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  • (PMID = 2144131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-0632
  • [Journal-full-title] Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana. Pan American Sanitary Bureau
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bol Oficina Sanit Panam
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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58. |......... 8%  Dawson SL, Surpin R: The home health aide. Scarce resource in a competitive marketplace. Care Manag J; 2000;2(4):226-31
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  • Direct-care staff--home health aides and personal care attendants--are the very point where home care "touches the client."
  • Yet our system of care delivery has never been designed for the needs of the direct-care worker.
  • Today we are paying the price: Across the country, our industry is experiencing the highest rates of direct-care vacancies and turnover in its history.

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  • (PMID = 11680906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0987
  • [Journal-full-title] Care management journals : Journal of case management ; The journal of long term home health care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Care Manag J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. |......... 8%  Polanczyk G, Jensen P: Epidemiologic considerations in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review and update. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am; 2008 Apr;17(2):245-60, vii
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  • Moreover, governments clearly must direct attention to childhood mental disorders to guarantee a healthy future for their countries.


60. |......... 8%  Field JO, Burkhardt R, Ropes G: Supplementary feeding in rural Egypt--the health system in action. Food Policy; 1981 Aug;6(1):163-79
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  • Of the several direct interventions against malnutrition, supplementary feeding is the most frequently employed in poor countries.

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  • (PMID = 12311048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-9192
  • [Journal-full-title] Food policy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Policy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] CPFH/ 09712cr981; POP/ 00087738
  • [Keywords] PIP ; Child Nutrition (major topic) / Delivery Of Health Care (major topic) / Evaluation (major topic) / Nutrition Programs (major topic) / Research Report (major topic) / Rural Population (major topic) / Culture / Demographic Factors / Egypt / Health / Health Services / Malnutrition / Nutrition / Population / Population Characteristics / Primary Health Care / Program Design
  • [General-notes] PIP/ TJ: Food Policy
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61. |......... 8%  Boelaert M, Meheus F, Robays J, Lutumba P: Socio-economic aspects of neglected diseases: sleeping sickness and visceral leishmaniasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol; 2010 Oct;104(7):535-42
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  • Both of these diseases affect the poorest of the poor in endemic countries, cause considerable direct and indirect costs (even though the national control programmes tend to provide free care) and push affected households deeper into poverty.
  • [MeSH-minor] Developing Countries. Humans. Socioeconomic Factors

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  • (PMID = 21092391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-8594
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of tropical medicine and parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Trop Med Parasitol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. |......... 8%  Mark T, Madsen P, Jensen J, Fikse WF: Short communication: Difficulties in estimating across-country genetic correlations for weakly linked bull populations. J Dairy Sci; 2005 Sep;88(9):3303-5
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  • [Title] Short communication: Difficulties in estimating across-country genetic correlations for weakly linked bull populations.
  • Estimates of the same genetic correlation differed noticeably depending on estimation strategy (up to 1.03 units) for country-pairs with no or few direct genetic links.
  • Differences in estimated genetic correlations decreased with an increasing number of genetic ties between countries, and, essentially, no differences were found between estimated genetic correlations based on 61 common bulls, regardless of the estimation strategy used.

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  • (PMID = 16107420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-3198
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dairy science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dairy Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. |......... 8%  Reichert TA: The Japanese program of vaccination of schoolchildren against influenza: implications for control of the disease. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis; 2002 Apr;13(2):104-11
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  • However, influenza control programs in developed countries focused on direct vaccination of the elderly.
  • Measures used to gauge the effectiveness of that program were insufficiently sensitive to demonstrate value, set against the large social and healthcare gains in that country.

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  • (PMID = 12122948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-1870
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Pediatr Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Influenza Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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64. |......... 8%  Angeby KA, Alvarado-Gálvez C, Pineda-García L, Hoffner SE: Improved sputum microscopy for a more sensitive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis; 2000 Jul;4(7):684-7
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  • Diagnosis of tuberculosis in low-income countries is hindered by the low sensitivity of direct sputum smear microscopy.
  • We compared an improved method based on liquefaction of sputum with NaOCl followed by centrifugation with standard direct smear in a central hospital and at peripheral health centres in Honduras.

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  • (PMID = 10907772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1027-3719
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Disinfectants; DY38VHM5OD / Sodium Hypochlorite
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65. |......... 8%  La Forgia GM, Harding A: Public-private partnerships and public hospital performance in São Paulo, Brazil. Health Aff (Millwood); 2009 Jul-Aug;28(4):1114-26
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  • Public hospitals that are directly managed by government perform poorly in many developing countries.
  • Given the prevalence of direct management of public hospitals in developing countries, the São Paulo experience has implications for policymakers seeking to improve hospital performance.

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  • (PMID = 19597211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-5208
  • [Journal-full-title] Health affairs (Project Hope)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Health Aff (Millwood)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. |......... 8%  Letourmy A: [On the development of health insurance in low-income countries: the case of African countries]. C R Biol; 2008 Dec;331(12):952-63
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  • [Title] [On the development of health insurance in low-income countries: the case of African countries].
  • Health financing reforms in most low-income countries promote social and micro health insurance, in order to reduce direct spending by patients.
  • Three phases of development can be distinguished in African countries: at first, schemes were developed only for the formal sector, then micro health insurance targeted the informal sector, and finally, health insurance was included in larger plans to reach universal coverage.
  • In spite of their limits, social health insurance schemes continue to be implemented, but as a part of hybrid financing system, fitting with the abilities of low-income countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Developing Countries / economics. Insurance, Health / economics. Poverty / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 19027696.001).
  • [ISSN] 1768-3238
  • [Journal-full-title] Comptes rendus biologies
  • [ISO-abbreviation] C. R. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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67. |......... 8%  Jiwani A, Marseille E, Lohse N, Damm P, Hod M, Kahn JG: Gestational diabetes mellitus: results from a survey of country prevalence and practices. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med; 2012 Jun;25(6):600-10
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  • [Title] Gestational diabetes mellitus: results from a survey of country prevalence and practices.
  • We aimed to assess country prevalence and to summarize practices related to GDM screening and management.
  • METHODS: Data on prevalence and country practices were obtained from a survey administered to diabetologists, obstetricians and others working on GDM in 173 countries.
  • Seventy-four percent of countries that completed the survey have national GDM guidelines or recommendations.
  • Countries use a variety of screening approaches.
  • In the countries where universal screening is recommended, the percentage of pregnant women screened ranges from 10% to >90%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We found large variations in estimated GDM prevalence, but direct comparison between countries is difficult due to different diagnostic strategies and subpopulations.
  • Many countries do not perform systematic screening for GDM, and practices often diverge from guidelines.
  • Countries need to carefully assess the cost and health impact of scaling up GDM screening and management in order to identify the best policy option for their population.

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  • (PMID = 21762003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4954
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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68. |......... 8%  Festy P: Adult mortality and proportions orphaned in Austria in 1991. Popul; 1995;7:232-8
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  • By comparing the census information on survival of parents and the corresponding direct measures of mortality, we have an opportunity to assess the validity of techniques which are commonly used in countries with defective vital registration.
  • This method, which hinges on the reporting of a single event that is no doubt remembered well, proves a good substitute for direct mortality measures, despite a slight underestimation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Austria. Child. Demography. Developed Countries. Europe. Family Characteristics. Family Relations. Longevity. Population. Population Characteristics. Population Dynamics. Research

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  • [Copyright] excerpt
  • (PMID = 12157930.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Population. English selection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Popul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
  • [Other-IDs] IND/ RH63141; POP/ 00254183
  • [Keywords] PIP ; Cohort Analysis (major topic) / Differential Mortality--women (major topic) / Indirect Estimation Technics (major topic) / Mortality (major topic) / Orphans (major topic) / Parents (major topic) / Survivorship (major topic) / Vital Statistics (major topic) / Age Factors / Austria / Child / Demographic Factors / Developed Countries / Estimation Technics / Europe / Family And Household / Family Characteristics / Family Relationships / Length Of Life / Population / Population Characteristics / Population Dynamics / Population Statistics / Research Methodology / Western Europe / Youth
  • [General-notes] PIP/ TJ: POPULATION: AN ENGLISH SELECTION
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69. |......... 8%  Waitzkin H, Britt T: Changing the structure of medical discourse: implications of cross-national comparisons. J Health Soc Behav; 1989 Dec;30(4):436-49
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  • Short-range strategies in countries such as the United States involve more direct ways in which patients and doctors can alter their communication.

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  • (PMID = 2600386.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1465
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of health and social behavior
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Health Soc Behav
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / 1-F32-AG05438; United States / AHRQ HHS / HS / HS-02100; United States / BHP HRSA HHS / PE / PE-19154
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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70. |......... 8%  Manavoğlu O, Orhan B, Evrensel T, Ozçelik T, Yolcu I, Kunt E: Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma following asbestos exposure. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol; 1996;15(2-4):191-4
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  • The direct exposure of workers in industrialized countries to asbestos fibers and nonoccupational household contact elevate the risk of malignant mesothelioma.
  • An increased risk has been found in certain geographic areas of Turkey due to the presence of asbestos deposits and the use of the material known as "white soil" as an insulation.

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  • (PMID = 9216805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0731-8898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Markers, Biological; 1332-21-4 / Asbestos
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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71. |......... 8%  Briand S, Mounts A, Chamberland M: Challenges of global surveillance during an influenza pandemic. Public Health; 2011 May;125(5):247-56
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  • The H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 tested the capacities of countries to detect, assess, notify and report events as required by the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR).
  • Such measures would have facilitated direct comparison of data between countries and improved timely understanding of the characteristics and impact of the pandemic.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21524774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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72. |......... 8%  Hamblin C, Armstrong RM, Hedger RS: A rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in epithelial tissues. Vet Microbiol; 1984 Sep;9(5):435-43
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  • No difficulty was experienced in the direct typing of freshly harvested epithelium from recently ruptured vesicles by the complement fixation (CF) test or ELISA.
  • The ELISA was more sensitive and specific, but proved no more efficient than the traditional CF test in the direct typing of samples of poorer quality from many countries overseas where communications are often difficult.

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  • (PMID = 6093338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-1135
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral
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73. |......... 8%  Gilchrist SA, Nanni A, Levine O: Benefits and effectiveness of administering pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine with seasonal influenza vaccine: an approach for policymakers. Am J Public Health; 2012 Apr;102(4):596-605
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  • For the influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, countries responded to the direct threat of influenza but may have missed opportunities and strategies to limit secondary pneumococcal infections.

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  • (PMID = 22397339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-0048
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Influenza Vaccines; 0 / Pneumococcal Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3489371
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74. |......... 8%  Russell MJ, Douglas TS: Evaluation of autofocus algorithms for tuberculosis microscopy. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc; 2007;2007:3489-92
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  • Direct sputum smear microscopy is the most cost-effective method of screening suspected cases of tuberculosis (TB) in high-prevalence countries.

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  • (PMID = 18002748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-170X
  • [Journal-full-title] Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. |......... 8%  Dadzie KY: Control of onchocerciasis: challenges for the future. Ann Trop Med Parasitol; 1998 Apr;92 Suppl 1:S65-7
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  • The health systems of the affected countries need not only to be directly involved in control activities but also to direct operations and have adequate resources to run them successfully.

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  • (PMID = 9861269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4983
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of tropical medicine and parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Trop Med Parasitol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Filaricides; 70288-86-7 / Ivermectin
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76. |......... 8%  Svavarsdottir EK: Listening to the family's voice: Nordic nurses' movement toward family centered care. J Fam Nurs; 2006 Nov;12(4):346-67
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  • Clinical nurses, teachers, and researchers in the Nordic countries are faced with increasing expectations in identifying their contribution to knowledge development in family nursing at national and international levels.
  • In this paper, I provide an insight into the contribution of Nordic nurses to family centred care (family system nursing), present findings from an integrative review on family nursing in the Nordic countries, share with you examples of family level interventions, and offer some ideas regarding where we might want to direct our focus in family system nursing in the future.

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  • (PMID = 17099115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1074-8407
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of family nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fam Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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77. |......... 7%  Simmons RB, Rose LJ, Crow SA, Ahearn DG: The occurrence and persistence of mixed biofilms in automobile air conditioning systems. Curr Microbiol; 1999 Sep;39(3):141-5
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  • Twelve automobile air conditioner systems from six manufacturers and three countries, selected mostly because of complaints of unpleasant odors in the passenger compartment, were examined for microbial growth by direct microscopy and enrichment culture.

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  • (PMID = 10441727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0343-8651
  • [Journal-full-title] Current microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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78. |......... 7%  Panagiotatos DE: Regional overview of bluetongue viruses, vectors, surveillance and unique features in Eastern Europe between 1998 and 2003. Vet Ital; 2004 Jul-Sep;40(3):61-72
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  • Between 1998 and 2002, successive epidemic waves of bluetongue (BT) virus infection were recorded in the Balkans giving rise to clinical outbreaks of BT that caused severe direct losses of livestock in several countries, namely: Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Kosovo, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Albania and probably Turkey and Croatia.
  • Affected countries resorted to different control, safeguard, prevention and epidemiological/ surveillance measures against BT but comprehensive and reliable data are by and large lacking.
  • This review attempts an analysis and extrapolation of the local epidemiological profiles and patterns documented in some countries in south-eastern Europe and - assuming that the evolution of BT in these countries reflects the situation of BT in the wider region - considers some relevant and timely questions of epidemiological significance.

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  • (PMID = 20419637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1828-1427
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinaria italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Ital.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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79. |......... 7%  Arnold LK, Razzak J: Research agendas in global emergency medicine. Emerg Med Clin North Am; 2005 Feb;23(1):231-57
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  • As the global culture moves forward into the 21st century with increasing interaction of populations through direct contact and electronic interchange, those citizens of our planet who have not benefited from the material gains that have been realized in the "mature economy" countries will increasingly seek equity on all levels, beginning with the most fundamental aspect of health care.

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  • (PMID = 15663983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0733-8627
  • [Journal-full-title] Emergency medicine clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Emerg. Med. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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80. |......... 7%  Delucas AC: Foreign nurse recruitment: global risk. Nurs Ethics; 2014 Feb;21(1):76-85
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  • Recruitment of nurses by industrialized nations from developing countries has been common practice for decades.
  • The direct impact on nurse emigration emphasizes the ethical, economic, and social inequalities between source and destination countries.
  • It is often more cost-effective for industrialized countries to recruit from developing countries; however, the depletion of source country resources has created a global healthcare crisis.
  • Destination countries are being challenged on the ethical implications of aggressive recruitment and their lack of developing a sustainable self-sufficient domestic workforce.
  • Similarly, source countries are confronting the same challenges as they struggle to fund and educate adequate numbers of nurses for domestic needs and emigrant replacement.

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  • (PMID = 23702892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-0989
  • [Journal-full-title] Nursing ethics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nurs Ethics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Economics / emigration / ethics / globalization / sustainability / workforce
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81. |......... 7%  Goldemberg J, Johansson TB, Reddy AK, Williams RH: Energy for the new millennium. Ambio; 2001 Sep;30(6):330-7
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  • The possibilities of technological leap-frogging that could enable developing countries to avoid repeating the mistakes of the industrialized countries is illustrated with a discussion of ethanol in Brazil.
  • The role foreign direct investment might play in bringing advanced technologies to developing countries is highlighted.
  • [MeSH-major] Conservation of Natural Resources. Developing Countries. Energy-Generating Resources. Technology Transfer

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  • (PMID = 11757280.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-7447
  • [Journal-full-title] Ambio
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ambio
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Solvents; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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82. |......... 7%  Brunton PA, Vrihoef T, Wilson NH: Restorative care and economic wealth: a global perspective. Int Dent J; 2003 Apr;53(2):97-9
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  • This brief communication reports an investigation as to whether a relationship may be established between the per capita gross domestic product (GDP), the average number of filled teeth (FT) and the Care Index (CI) for 35-44-year-old adults in different countries.
  • It is concluded that a direct proportional relationship does exist for the countries investigated in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Dental Caries / epidemiology. Dental Restoration, Permanent / statistics & numerical data. Developed Countries. Developing Countries

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  • (PMID = 12731697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-6539
  • [Journal-full-title] International dental journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Dent J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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83. |......... 7%  Vallin J, Mesle F, Rychtarikova J: [A comparative analysis of mortality by cause in the Czech Socialist Republic and in France with regard to developments since 1950]. Demografie; 1988;30(3):193-211
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  • The authors note that mortality in both countries declined until 1960, at which date both total and infant mortality were lower in the Czech Socialist Republic.
  • Changes in mortality by eight major causes are analyzed over time using direct standardization methods for each sex from 1950 to 1984 in both countries.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biology. Czechoslovakia. Demography. Developed Countries. Disease. Europe. Europe, Eastern. France. Infant Mortality. Physiology. Population. Population Dynamics

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  • (PMID = 12281303.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-8265
  • [Journal-full-title] Demografie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Demografie
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] CZECHOSLOVAKIA
  • [Other-IDs] IND/ 8009797; POP/ 00178446
  • [Keywords] PIP ; Cancer (major topic) / Cardiovascular Effects (major topic) / Causes Of Death (major topic) / Cerebrovascular Effects (major topic) / Differential Mortality (major topic) / Eastern Europe (major topic) / Mortality--changes (major topic) / Neoplasms (major topic) / Vascular Diseases (major topic) / Western Europe (major topic) / Biology / Czechoslovakia / Demographic Factors / Developed Countries / Diseases / Europe / France / Infant Mortality / Mediterranean Countries / Physiology / Population / Population Dynamics
  • [General-notes] PIP/ TJ: DEMOGRAFIE
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84. |......... 7%  Castelli A, Laudicella M, Street A, Ward P: Getting out what we put in: productivity of the English National Health Service. Health Econ Policy Law; 2011 Jul;6(3):313-35
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  • Many countries are incorporating direct measures of non-market outputs in the national accounts.

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  • (PMID = 20979686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-134X
  • [Journal-full-title] Health economics, policy, and law
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Health Econ Policy Law
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. |......... 7%  Steingart KR, Ng V, Henry M, Hopewell PC, Ramsay A, Cunningham J, Urbanczik R, Perkins MD, Aziz MA, Pai M: Sputum processing methods to improve the sensitivity of smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis; 2006 Oct;6(10):664-74
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  • In low-income and middle-income countries, direct (unconcentrated) sputum smear microscopy is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • The main limitations of direct microscopy are its relatively low sensitivity, especially in individuals co-infected with HIV, and variable quality of the test in programme conditions.
  • Overall, by comparison with direct smears, the results suggested that centrifugation with any of several chemical methods (including bleach) is more sensitive, that overnight sedimentation preceded by chemical processing is more sensitive, and that specificity is similar.

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  • (PMID = 17008175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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86. |......... 7%  Woolf AD, Pfleger B: Burden of osteoporosis and fractures in developing countries. Curr Osteoporos Rep; 2005 Sep;3(3):84-91
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  • [Title] Burden of osteoporosis and fractures in developing countries.
  • The burden of osteoporosis in developing countries is increasing dramatically with the aging of the population and demographic trends; however, there is a lack of direct epidemiologic data.
  • [MeSH-major] Developing Countries / statistics & numerical data. Fractures, Spontaneous / epidemiology. Osteoporosis / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16131427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-1873
  • [Journal-full-title] Current osteoporosis reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Osteoporos Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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87. |......... 7%  Mache S: Coping with job stress by hospital doctors: a comparative study. Wien Med Wochenschr; 2012 Oct;162(19-20):440-7
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  • These findings may help direct further research on cross-cultural investigations and health promotion interventions in both countries.

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  • (PMID = 23111656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1563-258X
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien Med Wochenschr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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88. |......... 7%  Campbell NR, Johnson JA, Campbell TS: Sodium Consumption: An Individual's Choice? Int J Hypertens; 2012;2012:860954
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  • In developed countries, salt added during food processing is the dominant source of salt and largely outside of the direct control of individuals.
  • Population-based interventions have the potential to improve health and to be cost saving for these countries.
  • Regardless, countries with either developed or developing economies can benefit from the integration of both population and behavioural change interventions.

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  • (PMID = 22263106.001).
  • [ISSN] 2090-0392
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Hypertens
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3259482
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89. |......... 7%  Tian YM: [Challenge and opportunity of entry to WTO brings to scientific and technological periodical]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi; 2004 Nov;20(4):415-6
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  • After our country enters WTO, confronted with the direct influence in big international market opening, editorial department will face fierce competition.

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  • (PMID = 21158131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-6834
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo ying yong sheng li xue za zhi = Zhongguo yingyong shenglixue zazhi = Chinese journal of applied physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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90. |......... 7%  Boas H: Where do human organs come from? Trends of generalized and restricted altruism in organ donations. Soc Sci Med; 2011 Nov;73(9):1378-85
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  • Using data from 30 countries for the years 1995-2007, this paper suggests that organ supply today is more dependent on direct donations than on the collective organ pool.
  • Whereas altruism is conceived as generating social solidarity, the rise in direct organ donations restricts the effect of altruism to one-to-one interactions rather than one-for-all giving.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21917368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] Social science & medicine (1982)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Soc Sci Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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91. |......... 7%  Lee A, Chalfine A, Daikos GL, Garilli S, Jovanovic B, Lemmen S, Martínez JA, Masuet Aumatell C, McEwen J, Pittet D, Rubinovitch B, Sax H, Harbarth S, MOSAR-04 Study Team: Hand hygiene practices and adherence determinants in surgical wards across Europe and Israel: a multicenter observational study. Am J Infect Control; 2011 Aug;39(6):517-20
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  • We examined hand hygiene practices in surgical wards in 9 countries in Europe and Israel through direct practice observation.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21496957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3296
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of infection control
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Infect Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. |......... 7%  Comas-Díaz L, Padilla AM: Countertransference in working with victims of political repression. Am J Orthopsychiatry; 1990 Jan;60(1):125-34
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  • Via case studies based on clinical consultation and direct testimony, this paper examines the effects on Chilean therapists living and working in that country.

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  • (PMID = 2305840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9432
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of orthopsychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Orthopsychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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93. |......... 7%  Chur-Hansen A, Carr JE, Bundy C, Sanchez-Sosa JJ, Tapanya S, Wahass SH: An international perspective on behavioral science education in medical schools. J Clin Psychol Med Settings; 2008 Mar;15(1):45-53
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  • Whilst direct comparisons between countries are not made, the themes that are evident within and between accounts are instructive.
  • As behavioral scientists around the globe are struggling to maintain a presence in medical education many of the reasons behind this are shared, regardless of the country.

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  • (PMID = 19104953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-3572
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Psychol Med Settings
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Congresses
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. |......... 7%  Ider BE, Adams J, Morton A, Whitby M, Clements A: Infection control systems in transition: the challenges for post-Soviet Bloc countries. J Hosp Infect; 2012 Apr;80(4):277-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infection control systems in transition: the challenges for post-Soviet Bloc countries.
  • BACKGROUND: Just two decades ago, 30 of today's countries in Europe and Asia had socialist governments under Soviet dominance or direct administration.
  • Intensive health system reforms have altered infection control in many of these countries.
  • However, much of the literature from these countries is difficult to access by international scientists.
  • AIM: To summarize existing infection control policies and practices in post-Soviet Bloc countries.
  • FINDINGS: Infection control in these countries is in the midst of transition.
  • Three groups of countries were identified.
  • First, Eastern European and Baltic countries building surveillance systems for specific pathogens and antibiotic use; second, European post-Soviet Bloc countries focusing on the harmonization of recently established infection control infrastructure with European surveillance programmes; third, countries such as those formerly in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Mongolia and post-conflict Eastern European countries that are in the first stages of reform.
  • More support from the international community will be needed for the third group of countries, where infection control has remained a neglected issue.
  • [MeSH-minor] Asia. Baltic States. Developing Countries. Europe, Eastern. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22377387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2939
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of hospital infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hosp. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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95. |......... 7%  Malloy DC, Sevigny P, Hadjistavropoulos T, Jeyaraj M, McCarthy EF, Murakami M, Paholpak S, Lee Y, Park I: Perceptions of the effectiveness of ethical guidelines: an international study of physicians. Med Health Care Philos; 2009 Nov;12(4):373-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Eleven focus groups were conducted with physicians from six culturally distinct countries to explore their perception of formalized, written ethical guidelines (i.e., codes of ethics, credos, value and mission statements) that attempt to direct their ethical practice.

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  • (PMID = 19544088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-8633
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicine, health care, and philosophy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Health Care Philos
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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96. |......... 7%  Cecinato A, Zagari M: Nitroarenes of photochemical origin: a possible source of risk to human health. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol; 1997;16(2-3):93-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • NPAH seem to effectively contribute to both the direct and indirect mutagenicity of air soot (in European countries more than in the U.S.A.).

  • HSDB. structure - NITROGEN.
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  • (PMID = 9275989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0731-8898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polycyclic Compounds; N762921K75 / Nitrogen
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97. |......... 7%  Rowe AK, Steketee RW, Arnold F, Wardlaw T, Basu S, Bakyaita N, Lama M, Winston CA, Lynch M, Cibulskis RE, Shibuya K, Ratcliffe AA, Nahlen BL, Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group: Viewpoint: evaluating the impact of malaria control efforts on mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health; 2007 Dec;12(12):1524-39
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  • This approach reflects decreases in malaria's direct and indirect mortality burden and can be examined in nearly all countries.

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  • (PMID = 18076561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-3156
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop. Med. Int. Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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98. |......... 7%  Lasater K, Upvall M, Nielsen A, Prak M, Ptachcinski R: Global partnerships for professional development: a Cambodian exemplar. J Prof Nurs; 2012 Jan-Feb;28(1):62-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Nurses have been volunteering to provide direct patient care in developing countries for several decades.
  • As a result, countries have begun to develop their health care workforce capacity and standards of care, but educational and professional development needs have emerged.
  • Global partnerships involving volunteers can assist developing countries to fulfill these needs, but little literature focuses on maximizing volunteers' experiences.
  • Through global partnerships and collaboration, the leadership and academic capacity of nurses and other health care professionals in developing countries can be enhanced.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cambodia. Developing Countries. Volunteers

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22261606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8481
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Prof Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. |......... 7%  Mills A, Ataguba JE, Akazili J, Borghi J, Garshong B, Makawia S, Mtei G, Harris B, Macha J, Meheus F, McIntyre D: Equity in financing and use of health care in Ghana, South Africa, and Tanzania: implications for paths to universal coverage. Lancet; 2012 Jul 14;380(9837):126-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • FINDINGS: Overall health-care financing was progressive in all three countries, as were direct taxes.
  • Out-of-pocket payments were regressive in all three countries.
  • The overall distribution of service benefits in all three countries favoured richer people, although the burden of illness was greater for lower-income groups.
  • Access to needed, appropriate services was the biggest challenge to universal coverage in all three countries.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2012 Jul 14;380(9837):88-90 [22591541.001]
  • (PMID = 22591542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-547X
  • [Journal-full-title] Lancet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. |......... 7%  Sassen-koob S: Direct foreign investment: a migration push-factor? Environ Plann C Gov Policy; 1984;2(4):399-416
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Direct foreign investment: a migration push-factor?
  • Previously, immigration into the US was viewed as a result of inept and failed domestic policies in the countries of origin.
  • Results show that recent immigrants to the US come from countries with neither the poorest nor the largest population growth rate in the less developed world.
  • However, the sending countries received US direct foreign investment (DFI) in the 1970s, particularly labor intensive investment in export manufacturing.
  • 1) the incorporation of new segments of the population into wage labor and the associated disruption of traditional work structures, 2) the feminization of the new industrial work force and its impact on the work opportunities of men, and 3) the consolidation of objective and ideological links with the highly industrialized countries where most foreign capital originates.
  • [MeSH-major] Developing Countries. Emigration and Immigration
  • [MeSH-minor] Americas. Demography. Developed Countries. Economics. Health Manpower. Industry. North America. Population. Population Dynamics. Public Policy. Social Planning. United States

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  • (PMID = 12280290.001).
  • [ISSN] 0263-774X
  • [Journal-full-title] Environment and planning. C, Government & policy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ Plann C Gov Policy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Other-IDs] CPC/ R-9385; POP/ 00152109
  • [Keywords] PIP ; Developing Countries (major topic) / International Migration (major topic) / Migration (major topic) / Northern America (major topic) / Americas / Demographic Factors / Developed Countries / Development Planning / Industry / Macroeconomic Factors / Manpower Needs / Migration Policy / North America / Policy / Population / Population Dynamics / Population Policy / Social Policy / United States
  • [General-notes] PIP/ TJ: ENVIRONMENT AND PLANNING C: GOVERNMENT AND POLICY
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