Disease related healthcare resource use was measured and direct costs were calculated from a societal perspective (true cost estimates) and from a financial perspective (country
Reliable direct measurement of causes of death in low- and middle-income countries
Forecasts from Country choices, South-South partnerships and Clinton Foundation-UNITAID coalition show that present policies for brand ARVs are at the risk of flop in emerging South markets such as India, China, Thailand and Brazil.The dynamics explored in this article highlight the risks the originator companies are running in the emerging markets, along with their interest in direct agreements with the generic industry for the manufacturing and marketing of ARVs.Resulting information here would suggest the brand enterprises:To look for fast registration of their ARVs by regulatory authorities in all countries
enlisted for differential pricing.To secure all formulations differentiated prices.To align with the Clinton-UNITAID prices for the corresponding generics.To pursue flexible negotiations with the generic companies to secure both counterparts long-term advantages.4.
METHODS: Four decades of male mortality rates of cardiovascular and chronic noncommunicable diseases were regressed on changes in and levels of country income per capita, market integration, foreign direct investment, urbanization rates, and population aging in fifty-six countries
for which comparative data were available. ... In low-income countries, higher levels of country income per capita, population urbanization, foreign direct investment, and market integration were associated with greater mortality rates of heart disease and chronic noncommunicable disease, less increased or sometimes reduced rates in middle-income countries, and decreased rates in high-income countries
OBJECTIVES:. (1) To compare the prevalence of bullying and victimization among boys and girls and by age in 40 countries. (2) In 6 countries, to compare rates of direct physical, direct verbal, and indirect bullying by gender, age, and country
. ... Six countries (N = 29,127 students) included questions about specific types of bullying (e. g., direct physical, direct
Increase in direct diabetes-related costs and resource use in the 6 months following initiation of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes in five European countries
: data from the INSTIGATE study. ... In all countries in our study, mean total direct
costs per patient increased in the 6-month follow-up period, compared with the 6-month period prior to insulin initiation, and ranged from €577 in Greece to €1402 in France. ... CONCLUSION: In all countries, the mean total direct
cost of care for diabetes increased after starting insulin. ... The breakdown of total direct costs by expenditure category varied considerably across countries
, reflecting differences in resource use patterns, prices of medical resources, and different health care systems.8.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the changes in resource utilization in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Spain, and Turkey) and direct costs in four European countries
(Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Greece) over the first 12 months of insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ... Contributors to total direct costs differed between countries
. ... In each country, mean direct
total costs of T2DM care increased during the first 6 months after insulin initiation and decreased thereafter.
The estimated total direct cost burden for OAB per country ranges between 333 million in Sweden and 1.2 billion in Germany and the total annual direct cost burden of OAB in these six countries
is estimated at 3.9 billion.10.
In March 1993, Global 2000, Inc., and the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Research, Training, and Eradication of Dracunculiasis at CDC began providing direct assistance for the eradication of dracunculiasis in both countries by assigning a resident public health advisor to each country
International breeding values for direct longevity were calculated using a multi-trait across-country
evaluation model. ... Three out of 15 countries published international EBV of direct longevity only and 12 out of 15 countries combined direct
longevity with predictors (combined longevity).12.
Moreover, if they were not born in an English or French speaking country, indirect immigrants are more likely to speak English and/or French capably than direct migrants born in such countries
The global Argentinean scientific research output is far below that of developed countries and has been affected in direct manner by economic, political and social disturbances in the country
The country comparisons show that the direct cost of administrating the up-dosing and maintenance differs considerably between countries, and that the cost of medical staff is substantial, constituting in most cases more than half of the direct
costs of the immunization therapy.15.
The comparisons between these countries illustrate how the differences in healthcare systems influence the contribution of direct
and indirect costs to the total.16.
This study identified and evaluated specific direct patient interventions made in developing countries
that could result in a decrease of the maternal mortality rate.
Although all samples were obtained from individuals residing in Uzbekistan, individuals with direct ancestry from neighboring Central Asian countries
are included. ... Individuals with direct ancestry in nearby countries
originate from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan.18.
The differences observed among countries on absolute and relative (compared with direct costs) amounts of indirect costs can be explained with the capability of a country
of actually measure productivity losses and indirect costs.19.
The costs per fatality, usually defined as direct and indirect costs plus a value of safety per se, are compared both between countries and over time, 1990 and 1999, for each country
When no direct comparisons between originator products in different countries are available, registration authorities are sometimes only prepared to grant registration for a generic product on the basis of a comparison with the originator product in the respective country
The worldwide costs of dementia were estimated from prevalence figures for different regions, and cost-of-illness studies from key countries using a model based on the relationship between direct costs of care per demented and the gross domestic product per capita in each country
The objective was to determine whether there was any time effect (trend to increase or decrease), country effect (significant difference between the countries included in the analysis) or product type effect (direct
or oxidation), as well as to identify risk factors.
RESULTS: The analysis revealed that: fifteen countries spent less than 4.5% of their GDP on health; forty four countries spent less than 15% of their national annual budget on health; sixty three percent of the governments in the Region spent less than US$10 per person per year; fifty per cent of the total expenditure on health in 24 countries came from government sources; prepaid health financing mechanisms cover only a small proportion of populations in the Region; private spending constituted over 40% of the total expenditure on health in 31; direct out-of-pocket expenditures constituted over 50% of the private health expenditure in 38 countries
. ... CONCLUSION: Every country needs to develop clear pro-poor health financing policy and a comprehensive health financing strategic plan with a clear roadmap of how it plans to transit from the current health financing state dominated by inequitable, catastrophic and impoverishing direct
out-of-pocket payments to a visionary scenario of universal coverage. ... The strategic plan should strengthening of health sector advocacy and health financing capacities, health economics evidence generation and utilisation in decision-making, making better use of available and expected resources, monitoring of equity in financing, strengthening of the exemption mechanisms, managed removal of direct out-of-pocket payments (for countries that choose to), and improving country
-led sectoral coordination mechanisms (e.g.24.
Aspects considered include changes in foreign direct investments, changes in the size of the European labor market, and the potential emigration of the labor force in underdeveloped countries
OBJECTIVE: To describe the medical resource use and direct costs of treatment for women with urinary incontinence (UI) in European countries
. ... The direct medical costs were calculated by attaching the unit costs from the perspective of the relevant health insurance in each country to the country
-specific resource use.
Recently, national surveys of prevalence of obesity in the United States and some European countries have been reported in terms of criteria that permit direct
comparison of the findings.27.
This literature has direct methodological relevance to developing countries interested in assessing the magnitude of their current cost-of-smoking burden and their future burdens, with differences in tobacco use histories and the availability of chronic disease treatment affecting country
-specific estimates.28. Country income had an inverse linear association with the presence of randomization (chi2 for trend = 5.6, p = 0.02) and a direct association with the use of blinding (chi2 for trend = 6.9, p = 0.008); although in low income countries
the probability of blinding was increased from 36% in 1993 to 46% in 2003.
While our analyses are not without their limitations, and the lack of comparability across instruments precludes a direct comparison across countries, there is no doubt that health expenditure contributes substantially to the impoverishment of households-increasing the incidence of poverty and pushing poor households into deeper poverty-in each country
In this survey of recent ecological research on the main vectors of trypanosomiasis in those countries of East, Central and West Africa that are not predominantly French-speaking, the authors, after outlining the distribution of tsetse flies and the type of country in which they occur, discuss the direct
and indirect effects of climate on these insects-particularly on their physiological water balance and on pupal fat reserves-and their recent advances into new areas.31.
The methods used by economists to estimate the direct and indirect costs of epilepsy are reviewed and results from studies in different countries
These strategies include attracting more people with legal permanent residency status into the health workforce, reimbursing home countries for the cost of educating health workers who subsequently migrate to the United States, improving policies to facilitate the entry of direct care workers into the country
, advancing efforts to promote and monitor ethical migration and recruitment practices, and encouraging the implementation of programs by US employers to improve the experience of immigrating health workers.33.
The authors further posit that countries that have enacted stronger intellectual property rights and research incentives have seen tremendous increases in foreign direct
Folklore and "uses and customs" in countries such as Mexico, under certain circumstances, have direct
influences on risks for traumatic injuries.
Mediated, moderated and direct effects of country
of residence, age, and gender on the cognitive and social determinants of adolescent smoking in Spain and the UK: a cross-sectional study. ... Participants' age, gender, smoking intentions and ASE determinant scores were identified and linear regression analysis was used to examine the mediated, moderated and direct effects of country
of residence, age and gender on participants' smoking intentions.36.
"The purpose of this article is to show the relationship among Japanese direct investment...,domestic labor markets, and international labor migration in ASEAN-4 countries
(Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand).37.
General morbidity surveys of the population in western countries are based on interviews, while in socialist countries general morbidity surveys are usually done by direct
medical examination or by assessment of the attended morbidity, most frequently, however, a combination of both approaches is used. ... Neither in interviews nor in the method based on direct or indirect medical examination so far sufficient unification of methodological approaches has been achieved to compare, based on these results, the health status of the population in different countries
The subjects presented are under active discussion in many countries, with the goal of direct
applications in daily clinical practice.39.
However, some lower-level evidence suggesting that direct transfer of the curriculum model from one country to another is not appropriate without first assessing the cultural context of both countries
All 17 countries offer direct
incentives, such as paid maternity leave. ... In 9 countries, pregnant women receive direct
Life-time prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent direct self-injurious behavior: a comparative study of findings in 11 European countries
. ... OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and associated psychosocial factors of occasional and repetitive direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB), such as self-cutting, -burning, -biting, -hitting, and skin damage by other methods, in representative adolescent samples from 11 European countries
Horvat and coauthors report on trends in living kidney transplantation in 69 countries, having assembled the data from registries, national societies, the medical literature, and direct
contact with transplant centers.43.
Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems.The country case studies--conducted in very different geographic
and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). ... The proportions of the different cost components (vector control; surveillance; information, education and communication; direct medical and indirect costs), as percentage of total costs, differed across the respective countries
This article compares issues surrounding long-term care provisions in the two countries and introduces Japan's unique licensure and certificate system for direct
INTRODUCTION: The direct transfer of the results of pharmaco-economic studies between countries may not be suitable if the proper adaptations are not made to take into account differences in treatment patterns, resource use and costs from country to country
Recommendations across multiple countries and organizations are synthesized as guidelines to direct
It has been suggested that the annual direct costs for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are now around $US41 billion in the 8 most industrialised countries
Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries
, where I is proportional to GCI(α).49.
Taking into account the changes implemented in the three countries, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each country in financing and decentralization, a rule for decision-making is proposed that attempts to identify the main financial changes implemented in each country and the basic indicators that can be used in future years to direct
the planning, assessment, adjustment and correction of health financing and decentralization.
This review discusses the direct and indirect costs of hand injury, the ability of countries
to pay these costs and suggests some ways of minimising these costs.51.
The paper goes on to briefly review some of the circumstances in certain Latin American and Caribbean countries that could pose practical limitations for direct
application of the ethical principles described.52.
Today we are paying the price: Across the country, our industry is experiencing the highest rates of direct
-care vacancies and turnover in its history.
Moreover, governments clearly must direct attention to childhood mental disorders to guarantee a healthy future for their countries
Of the several direct interventions against malnutrition, supplementary feeding is the most frequently employed in poor countries
Both of these diseases affect the poorest of the poor in endemic countries, cause considerable direct
and indirect costs (even though the national control programmes tend to provide free care) and push affected households deeper into poverty.
Estimates of the same genetic correlation differed noticeably depending on estimation strategy (up to 1.03 units) for country-pairs with no or few direct
However, influenza control programs in developed countries focused on direct
vaccination of the elderly.58.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis in low-income countries is hindered by the low sensitivity of direct
sputum smear microscopy.
Given the prevalence of direct management of public hospitals in developing countries
, the São Paulo experience has implications for policymakers seeking to improve hospital performance.60.
Health financing reforms in most low-income countries promote social and micro health insurance, in order to reduce direct
spending by patients.61.
CONCLUSIONS: We found large variations in estimated GDM prevalence, but direct comparison between countries
is difficult due to different diagnostic strategies and subpopulations.
By comparing the census information on survival of parents and the corresponding direct measures of mortality, we have an opportunity to assess the validity of techniques which are commonly used in countries
with defective vital registration.63.
Short-range strategies in countries such as the United States involve more direct
ways in which patients and doctors can alter their communication.64.
The direct exposure of workers in industrialized countries
to asbestos fibers and nonoccupational household contact elevate the risk of malignant mesothelioma.
Such measures would have facilitated direct comparison of data between countries
and improved timely understanding of the characteristics and impact of the pandemic.66.
The ELISA was more sensitive and specific, but proved no more efficient than the traditional CF test in the direct typing of samples of poorer quality from many countries
overseas where communications are often difficult.67.
For the influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, countries responded to the direct
threat of influenza but may have missed opportunities and strategies to limit secondary pneumococcal infections.
The health systems of the affected countries need not only to be directly involved in control activities but also to direct
operations and have adequate resources to run them successfully.70.
In this paper, I provide an insight into the contribution of Nordic nurses to family centred care (family system nursing), present findings from an integrative review on family nursing in the Nordic countries, share with you examples of family level interventions, and offer some ideas regarding where we might want to direct
our focus in family system nursing in the future.
Twelve automobile air conditioner systems from six manufacturers and three countries, selected mostly because of complaints of unpleasant odors in the passenger compartment, were examined for microbial growth by direct
microscopy and enrichment culture.72.
Between 1998 and 2002, successive epidemic waves of bluetongue (BT) virus infection were recorded in the Balkans giving rise to clinical outbreaks of BT that caused severe direct losses of livestock in several countries
, namely: Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Kosovo, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Albania and probably Turkey and Croatia.73.
The direct impact on nurse emigration emphasizes the ethical, economic, and social inequalities between source and destination countries
As the global culture moves forward into the 21st century with increasing interaction of populations through direct contact and electronic interchange, those citizens of our planet who have not benefited from the material gains that have been realized in the "mature economy" countries
will increasingly seek equity on all levels, beginning with the most fundamental aspect of health care.75.
The role foreign direct investment might play in bringing advanced technologies to developing countries
It is concluded that a direct proportional relationship does exist for the countries
investigated in this study.
Changes in mortality by eight major causes are analyzed over time using direct standardization methods for each sex from 1950 to 1984 in both countries
Many countries are incorporating direct
measures of non-market outputs in the national accounts.79.
In low-income and middle-income countries, direct
(unconcentrated) sputum smear microscopy is the primary method for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis.
The burden of osteoporosis in developing countries is increasing dramatically with the aging of the population and demographic trends; however, there is a lack of direct
These findings may help direct further research on cross-cultural investigations and health promotion interventions in both countries
In developed countries, salt added during food processing is the dominant source of salt and largely outside of the direct
control of individuals.
After our country enters WTO, confronted with the direct
influence in big international market opening, editorial department will face fierce competition.84.
Using data from 30 countries for the years 1995-2007, this paper suggests that organ supply today is more dependent on direct
donations than on the collective organ pool.85.
We examined hand hygiene practices in surgical wards in 9 countries in Europe and Israel through direct
Via case studies based on clinical consultation and direct testimony, this paper examines the effects on Chilean therapists living and working in that country
Whilst direct comparisons between countries
are not made, the themes that are evident within and between accounts are instructive.88.
BACKGROUND: Just two decades ago, 30 of today's countries in Europe and Asia had socialist governments under Soviet dominance or direct
Eleven focus groups were conducted with physicians from six culturally distinct countries to explore their perception of formalized, written ethical guidelines (i.e., codes of ethics, credos, value and mission statements) that attempt to direct
their ethical practice.90.
NPAH seem to effectively contribute to both the direct and indirect mutagenicity of air soot (in European countries
more than in the U.S.A.).91.
This approach reflects decreases in malaria's direct and indirect mortality burden and can be examined in nearly all countries
Nurses have been volunteering to provide direct patient care in developing countries
for several decades.93.
FINDINGS: Overall health-care financing was progressive in all three countries, as were direct
However, the sending countries received US direct
foreign investment (DFI) in the 1970s, particularly labor intensive investment in export manufacturing.
We reviewed published studies reporting the direct medical costs of treating HIV-infected people in countries
using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).96.
OBJECTIVES: To review the literature on the measurable direct and indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in industrialized countries
from a societal perspective and to develop a template for international use. ... The total costs of RA to society, and the different cost components such as direct and indirect costs, are broadly comparable in industrialized countries
by their order of magnitude.97.
In contrast, more direct from school entry students of both sexes and students from country
areas were recruited to higher education programs.
10 ''program countries'' are given direct
aid through this agency: Bangladesh, Botswana, Cuba, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zambia.99.
Artificially structured coatings are widely employed to minimize materials deterioration and corrosion, the annual direct cost of which is over 3% of the gross domestic product (GDP) for industrial countries
Pharmaceutical companies direct some of their promotion towards health workers who do not have the authority to prescribe medicines, such as nurses in certain countries